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ITHOGRAPHY:AND 
BTHOGRAPHERS^ 
ft^aOSEPH^PENNELL 
E=ROBINS:PENNELL 

HE' G RAPHIC 'ARTS = SERIES 



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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS SERIES 
LITHOGRAPHY 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS SERIES 
FOR ARTISTS, STUDENTS, 
AMATEURS & COLLECTORS 
Edited by JOSEPH PENNELL 
Vol. I. LITHOGRAPHY 
Vol. II. ETCHING 



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J. M. N. Whistler : Portrait of Joseph Pen.nell 
Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by T. Way. 



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LITHOGRAPHY AND 
LITHOGRAPHERS 

SOME CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF 
THE ART BY ELIZABETH ROBINS PENNELL 
TOGETHER WITH DESCRIPTIONS AND 
TECHNICAL EXPLANATIONS OF MODERN 
ARTISTIC METHODS BY JOSEPH PENNELL 
PRESIDENT OF THE SENEFELDER CLUB 







T. FISHER UNWIN PUBLISHER 
ONE ADELPHI TERRACE LONDON 1915 



First Published iQi^ 



{All i/^lils n-scrvcd) 



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-2 u4 T '^ 
GENERAL PREFACE 

TO THE GRAPHIC ^ 

ART SERIES 





^"T"^ HERE are endless series of art books — and endless schools of art. 

^ I endless lecturers on art and art criticism. But so far as I know 

there are no books on the graphic arts, written or edited, by 

graphic artists. This series is intended to be a survey of the best 

V^ work in the past — the work that is admitted to be worth studying — and a 

^ definite statement as to the best methods of making drawings, prints, ami 

engravings, written in every case by those who have passed their lives in 

making them. J. P. 



T 



ERRATUM 
Page \\\—for there are no books read there are no series of books. 



vu 



645161 




a; 
o 



PREFACE 



THOUGH the historical portion of this book is founded upon that of 
Mrs. Pennell and myself issued in 1898 — and long out of print — it 
is new — that portion is not merely a new edition. The book is 
new though based upon the old. Mrs. Pennell wrote all the 
historical section of the original volume. She has re-written it — leaving 
out unnecessary facts, correcting mistakes, and filling up omissions, making 
it not only more readable but more reliable. The book still contains, 
I know, a number of commissions and omissions. I have, I am afraid, 
made mistakes and included unnecessary matter. I have, however, tried 
to leave out superfluous lithographers and redundant methods, for to me, 
the trouble of most art books is they make so much of history that 
they omit facts. The technical part is entirely new. It is arranged after 
the method of Senefelder's Complete Course of Lithography, not only because 
Senefelder's was an excellent system, but for reference. In the sixteen 
years that have elapsed since the book was published, the artistic revival of 
lithography has come to pass, and to-day artistic lithography is taking its 
proper place with etching and engraving among the graphic arts — a place 
which it will always hold, for the " litho artist" and the " professional litho- 
grapher " have been put in their proper places, by the artist, who has found 
out, that to make an artistic lithograph, nothing but artistic ability, is 
necessary. 

I wish to thank Mrs. Pennell for the great help she has given in 
preparing the book. And Herr Carl Wagner, the biographer of Senefelder, 
for reading the proofs of the chapters on Senefelder and German Litho- 
graphy and making many valuable suggestions. Herr Wagner's historical 
collection of lithographs in the Leipzig Exhibition, 19 14, I have consulted with 
profit. I purposely kept the publication back, until the opening of the 
Leipzig 1914 International Book and Graphic Art Exhibition, hoping that 
new men and new methods might be shown. But from a rather thorough 
study of this most interesting and instructive exposition of the graphic arts — 
the finest that has ever been oot together — it is evident that outside Great 
Britain — and in Great Britain outside the Senefelder Club, which happens 
to have its home in this country — little of note has been accomplished in 
artistic lithography which I had not seen. The methods and practice of 
the members of the Club are being made use of in Italy and America to 



xi 



PREFACE 

produce most Interesting results in the hands of experimenting artists. The 
most notable exhibit of artistic lithography at Leipzig was the historical collection 
arranged bv Herr Carl Wagner, to whom, for his most successful work in 
this, and other directions, the thanks of all artist lithographers are due. 

The revival of artistic lithography, now in progress, is the work of 
artists, for artists, and by artists — visits to the Graphic Arts and Book 
Exhibition at Leipzig, the Work Exhibition at Cologne, and the Printing 
Trades' Exhibition in London — prove this. In Leipzig the work of artists 
was properly presented ; in London it was completely absent or carefully 
hidden, save for the posters and designs made by the members of the Senefelder 
Club. Even in the schools the work the pupils were doing, or showing, was 
purely commercial, and that, in comparison with foreign work, of the most 
commonplace description. The only school exhibit — I admit the work done 
by the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London under the direction of 
Mr. Jackson was not shown — which displayed the slightest character or showed 
ability, on the part of the students, studying lithography, was sent from the 
Royal Technical School at Glasgow. While lithography is being furiously 
practised on the Continent by artists and students, while experiments are being 
made in the United States, here teachers and pupils jog along in the same 
old rut, and when once in a while some one on the Continent copies some- 
thing from them, cease work altogether in order to rejoice and congratulate 
each other on the influence of British arts and crafts abroad ; or as now 
endeavour to steal trade, ignorant of the fact that trade, in its way, is the 
result of art. On the other hand, there is no doubt that in lithography 
to-day British artists, or rather artists of various nationalities and training 
living and working here, are making the greatest strides and progress in 
artistic lithography, and they are influencing the art in other lands. The 
future is bright, and the artists are enthusiastic, carrying on the best 
traditions of the past, and applying to them the best methods of the 
present. Encouragement is being given artistic lithographers and lithography 
in many ways. The Royal Society of Arts invited me to deliver a course 
of lectures in their Cantor Series, in the spring of 1914, and other members 
of the Club — Mr. Copley and Mr. Jackson as well as myself — have given 
talks, from Dublin to Doncaster and from Brighton to Glasgow, which we 
hope may have proved useful. Publishers are taking up artistic lithography, 
and so are commercial firms, and by the combined work of all, we are sure 
the most autographic, of the graphic, arts, will soon hold again, as it once 
did, the most important place among them. 

I hope that the technical methods are clearly e.xplained, but no one knows 
better how difficult it is to explain the simplest mechanical or technical matters. 
Artistic work cannot be taught. Either one is an artist or not, but an artist 
is not a master till he has mastered technique, and that is what I have tried 

xii 



PREFACE 

to make clear in the technical part of the book — to tell how a lithograph is 
made, how I make it, how the other men I know make it. 

PS. — The last pages were written just after the opening of the Leipzig 
Exhibition. I returned to Germany in June to further study and to work at the 
Pan Press in Berlin. I had arranged for a series of e.xamples of modern 
lithography to more fully illustrate the book. But in a moment all was 
wiped out. War affects the artist more than any one, and if this book in 
its showing of modern lithography is deficient, it is with the brainless fools 
who have brought on this woeful war that the blame lies. 

Mr. Campbell Dodgson has just pointed out to me that the Goyas are 
now properly catalogued and described in the Print Room of the British 
Museum. He has done much more than this, however; he has in a practical 
fashion encouraged artistic lithography by purchasing for the Print Room 
the work of living lithographers, a delightful contrast to his predecessor in 
this department. At South Kensington, in Washington, and in the Uffizi 
and other Italian museums, lithographs are being collected, while till the war, 
all over Europe there was great interest in the art, and great encouragement 
to artists, through museums, schools, collectors and dealers. 

Art crushed will rise again, and though Europe is hid within the cloud of 
war, and art and literature thrown aside, or trampled on, there is no reason why 
what has been done should not be recorded, lest facts be forgotten — no reason 
why methods should not be described, lest those who practised them should 
practise them no more. Where now are the Germans, the Belgians, and the 
Austrians, and the French I was working, and talking over lithography with, 
a few weeks ago ? Vanished all for a time, some for ever. And that too 
peaceful, too prosperous, artistic time will never return for me. Therefore it 
is well to record what is known of the history and methods of lithography, 
lest we foroet. 



o 



LONDON, NOVEMBER 8, 19U. JOSEPH PENNELL. 



xui 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

GENERAL PREFACE ......... vii 



PREFACE ........... XI 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ......... xvii 

Chapter I 

THE CELLINI OF LITHOGRAPHY ........ 5 

Chapter II 

THE BIRTH OF THE ART IN FRANCE ....... 37 

Chapter HI 

THE GREAT PERIOD IN FRANCE ........ 53 

Chapter IV 

EARLY ENGLISH .......... 89 

Chapter V 

THE REVIVAL IX ENGLAND ........ 129 

Chapter VI 

REVIVAL IN FRANCE ......... 165 

Chapter VII 

THE SPREAD OF THE ART . . . . . . . . 189 

Chapter VIII 

TECHNICAL AND CRITICAL INTRODUCTION ...... 233 

Chapter IX 

DESCRIPTION OF THE STONE AND METALS ...... 246 

XV 



CONTENTS 



Chapter X 

PAGE 

CHALKS, INKS, ETCHINGS, GROUNDS AND COLOURS ..... 253 



Chapter XI 

OF ACIDS AND OTHER COMPOSITIONS TO PREPARE THE STONE . . . 258 

Chapter XII 

OF NECE.SSARY INSTRUMENTS AND UTENSILS ...... 262 

Chapter XIH 

OF PAPERS ........... 265 

Chapter XIV 

OF PRESSES AND OF PRINTING ........ 270 

Chapter XV 

OF THE DIFFERENT MANNERS OF LITHOGRAPHY ..... 285 

Chapter XVI 

OF COLOUR LITHOGRAPHY ....... 294 

Chapter XVII 

OF THE WASH MANNER ......... 3OI 

Chapter XVIII 

OF PROOFS AND EDITIONS ........ 306 

INDEX ........... 309 



XVI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



NO. 

1. J. M. N. WHISTLER: PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH PENNELL . . . Frontispiece 

Photolitho by F. Vincent Brooks. From the drawing on paper, transferred to stone, printed by 
Thomas Way. 

PAG V. 

2. A. VON MENZEL: CHRIST IN THE TEMPLE . . . . . ix 

3. FRANZ HANFSTANGL: PORTRAIT OF ALOIS SENEFELDER . . 3 
Printed by Hanfstangl. 

4. J. N. STRIXNER : PAGE FROM DURER'S MISSAL OF MAXIMILIAN . . . / 

Drawn by Strixner, printed by Senefelder. The first book printed by Senefelder, Munich, iSoS — Albrecht 
Diirers Christlich Mythologischen Handzeichnungeii . 

5. ALOIS SENEFELDER (?) : TITLE-P.A.GE TO GERMAN EDITION, iSiS, OF 
COMPLETE COURSE OF LITHOGRAPHY . . . . . .II 

This contains Senefelder's statement of the date of the invention of lithography, 179S. 

6. BARON GENERAL LEJEUNE : A COSSACK . . . . . -15 
Printed by T. & C. Senefelder, Munich, 1806. 

7. F. PILOTV : THE BOAR HUNT ....... I9 

After Snyders. In the Munich Gallery Collection. 

8. F. HANFSTANGL : PORTRAIT ....... 23 

After Van der Heist. In the Dresden Gallery Collection. 

9. BERGERET: MERCURY ........ 27 

The first French lithograph, apparently drawn on paper and transferred to stone. Drawn for the Litho- 
graphic Press, 23, Rue Saint Sebastien, Paris, 1S04 — Senefelder's Paris Press. 

10. R. P. BONNINGTON : RUE DU GROS-HORLOGE A ROUEN . . . -31 
From Baron Taylor's I'oyages Pittoresques el Romantiques dans V Ancienne France. 

11. J. T. CHARLET : TIREURS DE LA COMPAGNIE INFERNALE . . -35 
Drawing "a la maniere noire." Scratched drawing from black to white. 

12. A. RAFFET : LE REVEIL ........ 39 

13. A. RAFFET: ILS GROGNAIENT MAIS LES SUIVAIENT TOUJOURS . . -43 

14. T. GERICAULT : THE BOXERS ....... 47 

15. EUGENE ISABEY: ENVIRONS DE DIEPPE . . . . . -SI 
Photolithograph by F. Vincent Brooks. 



16. ACHILLE DEVERIA: PORTRAIT OF ROSE JOSEPH LEMERCIER, FOUNDER OF 
THE PRINTING HOUSE OF LEMERCIER .... 

17. EUGENE DELACROIX : LION DE L'ATLAS .... 
iS. GAVARNI : PORTRAITS OF E. AND J. DE GONCOURT 

19. GAVARNI : LE BAL MASQUE ...... 

20. GAVARNI : THOMAS VIRELOQUE ..... 

xvii 



5.S 
59 
63 
67 

71 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

NO. PAGE 

21. H. DAUMIER : LE TUDLIC DU SALON — ARTISTES EN TRAIN D'EXAMINER LE 
TABLEAU D'UN RIVAL {LE CHARIVARI) . . . . . -75 
Photolil.ho by F, Vincent Brooks. 

22. H. DAUMIER : A SAINTE PELAGIE ....... 79 

23. H. DAUMIER : LA RUE TRANSNONAIN . . . . . -83 

From La Lithogi-aphie MensKcllc. 

24. THOMAS STOTHARD .......•■ 8/ 

Print from Specimens of Polyautograpky, 1803. Printed by Andre or Senefelder. 

25. WILLIAM BLAKE ......... 91 

From the Polyautographic Collection in the Print Room of the British Museum. Printed by Andre or 
Senefelder. 

26. SA.MUEL PROUT : THE PUMP. . . . . . . -95 

A drawing on paper, transferred on stone, from the English translation of Senefelder's Complete Course 
of Lithography, iSiS, printed by Ackermann. 

27. J. D. HARDING .......... 99 

Probably drawn on stone. From his Album Park and Forest, 

28. G. CATTERMOLE: A DEATH-BLOW ....... I03 

A lithotint, drawn on stone. 

29. JOHN LINNELL, JUN. : THE SONNET ...... I07 

After Mulready. Published by the Society of Arts, 184S. Drawn on stone. 

30. R. J. LANE: PORTRAIT OF MRS. JAMESON . . . . . .Ill 

Drawn on stone. 

31. LOUIS HAGHE : THE SIMOON IN THE DESERT . . . " . . II5 
From David Roberts' Holy Land. Drawn on stone, printed by Day and Haghe in colour. 

32. FREDERICK SANDYS: THE NIGHTMARE . . . . . . II9 

Caricature of J. E. Millais's ''Sir Isumbras at the Ford." Drawn on zinc. 

33. J. M. N. WHISTLER: ST. GILES', SOHO . . . . . • I23 
Drawn on paper, printed by Way. 

34. J. M. N. WHISTLER: THE THAMES ....... 127 

Lithotint, drawn on stone, printed by Way. 

35. C. H. SHANNON: THE BATHERS . . . . . . -131 

Drawn on paper, transferred and printed by the artist. 

36. WILLIAM ROTHENSTEIN : PORTRAITS OF RICKETTS AND SHANNON . . I35 
Drawn on paper, printed by Way. 

37. J. S. SARGENT: A STUDY . . . . . . . .139 

Drawn on paper, printed by C. Goulding. 

38. WILLIAM STRANG : THE ARTIST'S PORTRAIT .... I43 

Drawn by him on Van Gelder paper, transferred to stone by Tliomas Way, and printed on Van Gelder 
paper. 

39. J. KERR LAW.SON : IL PONTE ....... I47 

Lithotint, drawn by the artist on stone, and printed by him at the Senefelder Club Press. 

.xviii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



xo. 

40. 



41. 



42. 



ETHEL GABAIN : THE REVELLERS .... 
Drawn on stone, printed by the artist. 

E. J. SULLIVAN : THE LOVES OF ZEI'HVRUS AND FLORA . 
Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by C. Goulding. 

JOHN COPLEY : REMI, THE PRIEST OF THE SACRED GROVE 
Drawn on stone and printed by the artist at his own press. 



43. H. FANTIN-L.ATOUR : ROSES ........ 

Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by Lemercier (?). PhotoUthograph by F. Vincent Brooks, 
Day and Son. 

44. A. LUNOIS : HOLLANDAISE DE VOLENDAM ...... 

Wash-drawing on stone. 

45. F. TOULOUSE-LAUTREC : COVER IN COLOURS FOR l'eSTAMPE ORIGIXALE 
Method and printer unknown. 

46. JULES LEONARD ......... 

After Rembrandt's "Man in Fur Hat" in tlie Hciiiiilage. 

47. T. A. STEINLEN : EN GRfeVE ........ 

48. H. FANTIN-LATOUR : IDYL ........ 

Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by Lemercier (?). Photolithugrapli by F. Vincent Brooks, 
Day and Son. 

49. JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET: THE SOWER ...... 

Drawn for VArtiste, but not pubhshed. 

50. OTTO GREINER : THE DANCE ....... 

51. A. VON MENZEL : THE GARDEN .... 
From Sketches with Chalk and IVash on Stone. I'hotolitho by F. \'incent Brooks, Day and Son. 



52. OTTO FISCHER : IN THE WOOD 

53. II. UNGER : STUDY HEAD .... 

54. KATHIE KOLLWITZ : WORKWOMAN . 

55. M. A. J. BAUER : THE SPHIN.X 

56. H. J. HAVERMAN : MOTHER AND CHILD 

57. JAN V. VETH : PORTRAIT OF A. VON MENZEL 

58. STORM VAN 'SGRAVESANDE : DUTCH FISHING BOATS 

59. J. MARIS : DUTCH CHURCH .... 

60. FRANCISCO GOYA : THE BULL FIGHT 

61. FRANCISCO GOYA : PORTRAIT 

Unknown. 



PAGK 



163 

167 
171 

179 

183 

187 
191 

199 

203 
207 

21 I 
215 
219 

22 "J 
227 

^35 



XIX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

XO. PAGE 

62. ADOLPHE HERVIER : LANDSCAPE ,,..... 239 

63. H. DEKOV: PORTRAIT OF BAUDELAIRE ...... 243 

64. F. BRANGWYN : THE DOCKS . . . . . . . . 247 

Drawn on stone, printed by F. Vincent Brooks, Day and Son, in two colours. A poster for the Under- 
ground Railway. 

65. ANTHONY R. BARKER: THE THEATRE . . . . . . 25I 

Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by F. Vincent Brooks, Day and Son. A poster for the 
Underground Railway. 

66. G. SPENCER PRYSE : THE FOOTBALL M.\TCH ..... 255 

Drawn on stone in colour by the artist, printed by F. Vincent Brooks, Day and Son. A poster for the 
Underground Railway. 

67. H. BECKER: THE MOWER ........ 259 

Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by F. Vincent Brooks, Day and Son. A poster for the Under- 
ground Railway. 

68. PAUL MAUROU : THE VISION ....... 263 

After H. Martin. 

69. A. S. HARTRICK : BETSEY ........ 267 

Drawn on stone, washed with turpentine from dark to light, finished with chalk, printed London County 
Council School Press. 

■JO. CHARLES CONDER : CABARET ....... 271 

Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by C. Goulding. 

71. JOSEPH PENNELL : THE GUARD GATE, GATUN LOCK, PANAMA CANAL . . 27$ 
Drawn on paper at Gatun, transferred and printed in Philadelphia by Ketterlinus Company. 

72. D. A. WEHRSCHMIDT : OLD PIALL ....... 279 

Drawn on paper with actor's grease paint, transferred to stone, printed by Thomas Way. 

73. F. ERNEST JACKSON: THE "ROBE DE VELOURS" ..... 283 
Drawn on stone, printed by the artist. 

74. EDOUARD MANET : PORTRAIT DE FEMME ...... 287 

Method and printer unknown. 

75. FELICIEN ROPS: PORTRAIT OF ADfeLE DUTTE ..... 29I 

■j6. J. MCLURE HAMILTON : PORTRAIT OF W. E. GLADSTONE .... 295 
On stone and paper, printed in three colours by T. Way. 

•]•]. HENRI DE GROU.X : LA VIGNE ABANDONNE ..... 299 

78. E. CARRIERE : WOMAN'S HEAD ....... 303 

79. A. WILLETTE : FORTUNE . . . . . . . . 307 

Method and printer unknown. 

Note. — In several cases it is impossible to state the name of the printer or the method by which the work has been drawn. 



XX 



THE CELLINI OF 
LITHOGRAPHY 



THE CELLINI OF 
LITHOGRAPHY 



CHAPTER I 

OF all the Graphic Arts, Lithography alone has an authentic 
history. Metal Engraving and Etching are supposed to be the 
outcome of rubbings on paper by the niello workers, done to 
see the effect of their designs in metal, to make specimen books 
for their clients, or preserve a record of their compositions. The dispute 
over the discovery of Mezzotint is still unsettled. No one really now knows 
how Aquatints were done. As to Wood Blocks, whether the Chinese 
invented the Japanese, or discovered the art, or each other, is an endless 
subject for endless authorities, most of whom have discovered little for 
themselves. Papillon in France proved he knew all about Wood-engraving 
by the engravings in his history of the art — and he was most indignant 
when, he said, "a fool of an Englishman came over to tell me how to 
engrave on the end of a block." Bewick, who is supposed — in England 
anyway — to have been the first to engrave with a graver on a cross-section, 
the end of a piece of boxwood, does not make in his Memoirs any claim to 
have done so. What Bewick did was to apply the white engraved line 
to Wood-engraving. 

But with Lithography it is different. Aloys Senefelder invented the art 
in 1798, and he says so in his Complete Course of Lithography, 18 18,' and no 
one has been able to deprive him of one jot or one tittle of his discovery 
— though many have tried ; no one has succeeded in doing anything e.xcept 
what he did, or said could be done. Many have thought they had invented 
new methods in stone printing — lithography — only to turn to Senefelder, and 
find that he had either practised, or predicted them. But Senefelder was not 
only a prophet and an inventor ; he was a practical person, and a nasty man 
to get on the wrong side of. He was a modern Cellini, and if he did not, 
like Cellini, go about after shop-hours, instructing Cardinals and informing 
Popes, and then painting Rome red on his way home, at any rate in his leisure 
Senefelder demonstrated the possibilities of his art to Society and Royalty, 
and hauled any one into the law courts who dared to dispute his patents. 
And his mantle has, in this respect, fallen upon the shoulders of some of his 
followers. 

' Herr Wagner maintains that Senefelder's first drawing was chemically printed in 1796, 
but Senefelder gives 1798 as the date of his discovery. 

5 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

Perhaps the most indiscreet moment in Aloys Senefelder's Hfe was when, 
in i8iS, he began to write the history of his invention. For then it was he 
ruined his chances with the modern chronicler, or critic, who, in the history 
of art, prizes above all else the unknown, the dubious, the undescribed, the 
uncatalogued, the obscure. 

There is no reason why Senefelder's claim should ever have been doubted 
Patents and privileges were granted to him in Bavaria and abroad. His book 
was published while many were alive who knew him, and were acquainted with 
the facts, and they, so far from questioning his statements, testified to their 
truth. Engelmann and Lasteyrie, who founded the first lithographic houses 
in Paris ; Ackermann, who made the new art popular in England ; Schlichte- 
groll, the Director of the Royal Academy in Munich ; all confirm — if con- 
firmation be necessary — Senefelder's straightforward story, and supply its 
rare omissions. 

Senefelder's father, Peter Senefelder, was a wandering play-actor. In the 
course of his strolling he came one day into castellated, sensational, theatrical 
Prague, where Aloys, his eldest son, was born at the end of 1771 or the 
beginning of 1772.' The boy passed his youth travelling with his father and 
other actors about Germany. In Munich he went through school, and, unlike 
the traditional genius, came off with flying colours. Then he was sent to study 
law in Ingolstadt. Senefelder was ambitious, his inclination, however, leaning 
to things dramatic rather than legal. He may have played with the law ; he 
certainly worked on the stage and at the writing of dramas ; one, the 
M'ddchenkeniier, published at his expense, yielded a profit of a hundred 
florins — no small wealth for a student. This is a trivial detail, but it proved 
of infinite importance in shaping his career. 

At the end of his three years at Ingolstadt, his father died 2 and left a 
widow and eight younger children to the care of Aloys, who, of the law, had 
learned enough to know it was not to be relied upon for an immediate 
income. To the theatre he looked for support, and, never modest in his 
ambition, determined to gain fame and fortune, as actor and dramatist both. 
He joined a company and played from town to town of Bavaria. But his 
reward, he says, was "a great deal of misery and disappointment." His plays 
brought him no better return. He was not discouraged ; confidence in himself 
was undiminished though money v^as exhausted, but he saw clearly that his 
plays would never be presented to the world unless he became his own printer 
and publisher. It may be that, since he had it in him to invent, he would, 
under any circumstances, have invented something ; it is more than likely that 
this something would not have been lithography, but for his desire to see his 
plays in print and his belief in them. 

He finally returned to Munich and began to experiment in printing, though 
' He was born November 6, 1771. - May 4, 1792. Wagner. 

6 







iTt. 



^*^ ^Sa^T^it -Ccj 



J- N. Strixner : Page from Durer's Missal of Maximilian. 
The first book printed by Senefelder, 1806, Munich. 



THE CELLINI OF LITHOGRAPHY 

his technical knowledge was limited to hints picked up while his earlier plays 
were in the press. He began by various methods of stereotyping. Then he 
tried copper plates, but he was confronted at once with two difficulties : every- 
thing had to be written backward — in reverse — which meant ample opportunity 
for mistakes and great difficulty in correction ; and copper was dear. In his 
technical ignorance, Senefelder had to discover for himself methods familiar to 
engravers and printers. There was, had he known it, a varnish which would 
have disposed of one difficulty. But not until after repeated failures did 
he hit upon the combination of wax, soap, lampblack, and water which not 
only met his need but carried him on to his great discovery. By his side 
throughout these experiments there happened to be a piece of Kelheim stone, 
upon which he ground his colours. It was smooth and easily polished. The 
mission of this plentiful stone from near quarries seemed to most Bavarians the 
laying of Munich's house floors ; but it occurred to Senefelder that it presented 
the surface for his experiments and would replace copper. After this, it was 
not long before he found that he could print from the stone by etching it. 
Thus it was that, working for another end, he provided himself with most of 
the materials of lithography. 

Senefelder tells the story in his own words in his own book, the Complete 
Course of L ithography : 

" I had just ground a stone plate smooth in order to treat it with etching 
fluid and to pursue on it my practice in reverse writing, when my mother 
asked me to write a laundry list for her. The laundress was waiting, but we 
could find no paper. My own supply had been used up by pulling proofs. 
Even the writing ink was dried up. Without bothering to look for writing 
materials, I wrote the list hastily on the clean stone, with my prepared stone 
ink of wax, soap, and lampblack, intending to copy it as soon as paper was /- 
supplied. 

"As I was preparing afterward to wash the writing from the stone, I 
became curious to see what would happen with writing made thus of prepared 
ink, if the stone were now etched with aqua-fortis. I thought that possibly 
the letters would be left in relief and admit of being inked and printed like 
book-types or wood-cuts. My experience in etching, which had showed me 
that the fluid acted in all directions, did not encourage me to hope that the 
writing would be left in much relief But the work was coarse, and therefore 
not so likely to be undercut as ordinary work, so I made the trial. I poured 
a mixture of one part aqua-fortis and ten parts of water over the plate and let 
it stand two inches deep for about five minutes. Then I examined the result 
and found the writing about one-tenth of a line, or the thickness of a playing- 
card, in relief. 

" Eagerly I began inking it. I used a fine leather ball, stuffed with 
horsehair, and inked it very gently with thick linseed oil varnish and lamp- 

9 B* 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

black. I patted the inscription many times with this ball. The letters all 
took the colour well, but it also went into all spaces greater than half a line. 
That this was due to the over-great elasticity of the ball was clear to me. 
So I cleansed my plate with soap and water, made the leather tense, and used 
less colour. Now I found colour only in such spaces as were two or more 
lines apart." 

These experiments, recorded by Senefelder, prove to all who understand 
the technique of engraving just what he was trying for. In the first instance, 
to etch upon stone exactly as one etches upon copper ; to cover the face of 
the stone with varnish, to scratch through this varnish to the stone with a 
point, and to bite the stone thus laid bare with nitric acid, and so produce 
an etching — an intao-lio engrravino-. In the second instance, as a result of the 
washerwoman, he tried to do the very opposite ; he wrote with the same 
varnish, though liquid, upon the bare polished stone. He then poured nitric 
acid upon the stone, when all those parts not covered and protected by the 
varnish were eaten away, and the surface of the stone, save where it was 
protected by varnish, was lowered, leaving the writing in relief, as in a 
wood-cut or a wood-engraving. Neither method is lithography ; nor had the 
idea of lithography, which is surface printing and nothing else, entered into 
the mind of Senefelder. 

He knew the value of his discovery — relief engraving on stone. Stone 
had been used and so had metal. Blake was usino- metal in this manner at 
much the same period.' But no one had used stone in exactly the same way, 
and he foresaw a patent for his "invention," or, he adds, "some assistance 
from the Government, which in similar instances had shown the ojreatest 
liberalitv in encouraoing and promoting new inventions which I had thought 
of less importance." 

This is Senefelder's story. His discovery did not bring him fortune, but 
such bitter poverty that he is said to have meditated suicide and then, to get 
money to continue his experiments, enlisting as a private soldier. He failed 
in both these plans, but his luck turned when he met his friend Gleissner, a 
musician, and a composer as well, with music to print and a fancy for speculation. 
He went into partnership with Senefelder, a copper-plate press was bought, or that 
on which he made his first experiment was used, the music was written upon the 
stone and printed, and in less than a fortnight a clear gain of seventy florins 
was divided between the partners. There is one important fact to note — that 
the first press used by Senefelder was a copper-plate press. The prints were 
shown to the Elector, Charles Theodore, who acknowledged them by a gift 
ot a hundred florins and the promise of an exclusive privilege. They were 
submitted to the Electoral Academy of Sciences, whose attention was called 

' Wagner points out that Schmidt had done the same thing in Germany, but the maps on 
which Wagner bases his contention seem to have been engraved with a burin (see next page). 

lO 




A. Senefelder (r) ; Title-page to the Germax Edition of .-! Complete Course of Lithography. 
Containing Senefelder's statement of tlie date ot the invention of litiiograpliy, 1798. 



THE CELLINI OF LITHOGRAPHY 

to the cheapness of the new method, there being people, even a hundred 
years ago, with whom the cheapening of art was the great consideration. 
The Academy, in academic mood, decided that, as the initial outlay was so 
small, double the price of the press would be an ample reward to the inventor, 
and they presented Senefelder with twelve florins ; luckily one could not get 
a press for that sum now, or there would be thousands of lithographers. 

But Senefelder's difficulties were technical. ThouQ-h his invention was 
talked about, and work came to him, he could not do it. His first press 
gave smudged impressions from carefully prepared stones ; a second broke the 
stone after two or three proofs had been pulled ; a third almost broke him 
on the wheel. Printers were clumsy, paper was spoiled, patrons lost patience, 
the Elector withheld his privilege. These difficulties filled the year 1796, 
Experience showed him the defect of his method, and thus helped him to 
correct it. The fact is that in 1796, though he was printing from stone, the 
art of lithography had not been invented. But by 1798 he brought it to such 
perfection that he left next to nothing, in the way of invention, for future 
lithographers ; only the development that comes with practice and time. 

Durinof this vear, however, two other Germans, Schmidt and Steiner, ■ had 
begun to experiment in engraving upon stone, and Senefelder published his 
first drawing, or rather an engraving of it, on stone: "Conflagration of New 
Getting,"- a house on fire, conventional flames bursting" from the upper windows, 
a Noah's Ark tree standing in the foreground. Steiner was charmed. Copy- 
books, catechisms, illustrated sacred histories, prayer-books, were entrusted to 
Senefelder, who, before long, was training young artists to draw upon stone 
for engraving, and was himself trying to invent transfer paper which, costing 
him several thousand experiments, according to his generous reckoning, was to 
do away with the necessity of writing backward. It was from this endeavour 
to make transfers to stone for engraving in relief — not for lithography — that 
the art of lithography was discovered. He writes : " These experiments led 
me to the discovery of the present chemical lithography," by which he means 
surface printing — lithography. 

He explains his method. He wished, now that commissions were pouring 
in upon him, to increase his power of production, and he invented a gummy- 
surfaced paper, upon which he could write with his greasy ink or varnish that 
he was already using, without reversing, lay this, face downward, on the stone, run 
it through the press, when the writing would come off bodily on to the stone in 
reverse. The ink being made of the same materials as his varnish, was 
varnish, and he proposed then, to etch his stone, and to get his engraving in 
relief If it were then printed, the engraving would appear in the proper 
manner. But it suddenly occurred to him, why should he engrave it? If he 

' Wagner says Steiner never experimented. 

" A sheet of music witla the drawing at the bottom Brand von Neitdtiing. 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

could transfer his drawing or writing from paper to stone, why not from 
stone back to paper, without any engraving or biting ? Why not either draw 
on the paper, and transfer it to the stone, or on stone itself, with the same 
ink or varnish, or the ink solidified into chalk, and then see if a print would 
come off the flat surface on to the paper, without any engraving? He did try 
the experiment, or several thousand, as he says, and succeeded. And thus 
lithography was invented, according to Senefelder's own statement, by the use 
of the gummy-surfaced transfer paper, which he also invented ; and this, he 
says, constitutes the most important part of his discovery. 

Senefelder divides his chemical printing or lithography into two manners : 
the first, " the chalk manner, by which every artist is enabled to multiply his 
original drawings, the second, the transfer manner, by which every piece of 
writinor or drawing with the greasy ink on paper can be transferred to the 
stone, and impressions taken from it. This last method may one day be of 
o-reat utility . . . where the drawing or writing with the same unctuous com- 
position is made on paper, and is transferred from thence by artificial dissolu- 
tion " (of the gummy surface of the paper) "to the stone and printed from 
it. This manner is peculiar to the chemical printing, and I am strongly 
inclined to believe that it is the principal and most important part of my 
discovery. ... It will be of the utmost benefit to artists by enabling them 
to obtain facsimiles of their drawings, and I wish to point out the various 
important purposes to which it may be applied, in order that clever artists may 
devote themselves to its improvement." 

This is the whole art of lithography, that is ; surface printing. The 
drawing may be produced either by the artist upon stone, or it may be made 
upon paper, the method Senefelder commends, and transferred to stone or 
metal plates, or the grease extracted from it, and affixed to the stone, when it 
becomes a part of the stone, and is printed in the same manner while the 
drawing remains on the paper. Senefelder tried to do away with stone 
entirely, to use tin, zinc, or other metals, or to invent a paper coated with 
a stone facing which could be drawn upon. But after a hundred years of 
experimenting, till to-day, no such satisfactory material has been found for print- 
ing from as the Kelheim stone, upon which he wrote the washerwoman's bill. 
It is solely owing to chemical action, and, in some, degree, the ease with which 
the stone may be polished or ground with sand, and the greater uniformity 
of the results obtained — and to no inherent artistic quality or merit of it — 
that stone is used. The name " lithography " is but a makeshift, though a 
handy one. The art is not that of drawing or writing on stone, but of 
surface printing — not even necessarily from stone — by means of chemical 
affinity — a method based upon the simple fact that the calcareous stone 
imbibes water and grease with equal readiness, having an affinity for both. 

Senefelder gave explicit technical directions for every other possible use 

14 




Bakox GeM'.kai. Lejeink ; A Cossack. 
Printed by T. & C. Senefclder, iSo6. 



THE CELLINI OF LITHOGRAPHY 

that could be made of stone— for aquatint, and colour-work and etchinc^, 
and the imitation of steel- and wood-engraving-, and so on. These were mostly 
but adaptations of methods already familiar to engravers. His one great 
discovery is that the prints he produced were printed from the surface of 
the stone, the material he happened to find most responsive, and not from 
an intaglio plate or a relief block ; and that every impression thus obtained 
is as much the artist's original handiwork as his drawing, for no original 
exists, or ever did exist, except on the stone, or the metal plate, or the 
paper on which we now make it. Every print is an original. It follows, 
that a lithograph is simply and solely a surface print, each print a repeti- 
tion, in exactlv the same greasv materials, of the original drawing, which is 
absorbed by the stone. It is not the drawing on stone or on paper, but 
the print obtained from the surface of this stone or plate, which is a litho- 
graph. So, properly speaking, an etching is not the engraving on copper, but 
the print from it. The lithograph has the inestimable advantage of being 
absolutely autographic. By every other method of multiplication known, the 
design must be changed entirely before it can yield a print. On steel, the 
lines must be engraved ; on copper, bitten in ; on wood, left in relief. But a 
lithograph is the drawing itself, unchanged, actually as the artist made it, 
multiplied by the printing press. 

Senefelder's story is a curious commentary on many of the British 
authorities who, to-day, are ignorant of Senefelder and all his works. It was 
in 179S that lithography, which he called chemical printing, polyautography, 
stone-printing, and finally lithography, was invented. It is not until 18 18 
that we have any absolute proof that he ever used the word lithography 
at all.' Chemical printing discovered, Steiner, Director of the Royal Schools 
of Bavaria, became a patron, and Senefelder was able to employ his brothers 
Theobald and George, and take two apprentices. In 1799 he was earning 
ten or twelve florins a day. At last the official privilege promised was granted 
him, that no one for fifteen years was to set up as lithographer in Bavaria, 
save at the risk ot a penalty of one hundred ducats and confiscation of 
stock and implements. He held his peace until the privilege was secured, 
then he spoke openly, saying : " In consequence of this privilege, which, 
though it only was for Bavaria, entirely satisfied all our hopes, I did not 
think it necessary to keep our art any longer a secret, but took a pride in 
explaining it to any stranger who, attracted by the novelty of the invention, 
came to our office." Had Senefelder been less generous of speech, it would 
have fared better with him. All his life he was either toiling hard over his 

' Wagner saj-s : " Senefelder issued a circular in 1809 beginning with these words, "Miiskrlnch 
iiber allcr lilliogmpliisclien. Kurst Alameren, etc' ; while Andre in Paris got out a prospectus 
dated I" Frimaire, an 13 (November 22, 1804), containing the words 'par brevet d'invention. 
Imprimerie Litliographique, 24 rue St. Sebastian.' " 

17 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

inventions, or else seeing the prosperity they brought to others ; perhaps because 
he did not understand that the first principle of business is to seek only 
your own interest, and that once you think you have invented a new art, you 
should start a limited liability company and a school of worshippers. 

However, an immediate benefit was the outcome of his indiscretion. 
Amione the strangers, welcomed with mistaken effusion, was Andre, a music 
publisher of Offenbach, a sharp man of business. He was fascinated, as 
publishers were sure to be, by the cheapness of the method, and sufficiently 
honest to offer Senefelder a fair price for his indiscretion, before his 
indiscretion had gone too far. In return for 2,000 florins Senefelder 
surrendered his secret and went to Offenbach, to set up a press and train 
workmen. Further negotiation ended in a proposal of partnership. The next 
care was to secure patents in other countries before any stray visitor or 
workman instructed in the Munich shop had forestalled them. Senefelder was 
dispatched in 1800 to London, where one of the Andres, Philip, undertook to 
manage the transaction, since the babbling Senefelder was obviously not to 
be trusted. Besides, as his portraits show and biographers tell, his appearance 
would have been against him in a town where, among business men, 
appearance then, as to-day, counted for everything. He was awkward and 
heavy, with big coarse features upon which benevolence and innocence were 
writ much too large, and he was dirty and untidy. He was kept a strict 
prisoner, much to his disgust. " My stay in England," is his plaintive protest, 
"had not the expected success with respect to establishing a lithographical 
office there ; the principal cause was the precaution and anxiety of Mr. Philip 
Andre, who kept me during the whole time of my stay in a perfect seclusion, 
for fear of losing the secret." And, longing for "an enterprising print-seller" 
— had he met Ackermann of the Strand shop, the whole course of lithography 
in England might have been changed — instead of his over-cautious partner, 
Senefelder spent his captivity at his favourite pastime of inventing. So silent 
was he, through no will of his own, that when he left the country few 
Englishmen had heard of the invention, fewer still of the inventor. The 
patent obtained in 1801 was entered in his name, but Andr6 claimed it for 
himself in the first book of lithographs. Specimens of Polymitography, 1803, 
printed in England. The patent was taken out, not for drawing or writing, 
but for a method of printing designs on calico from stone or metal plates.' 

From London, Senefelder apparently went to Paris, where a patent was 
granted in 1802 to Frederick Andre, who in F" ranee passed for the inventor. 

' Messrs. Lorilleux & Co. showed in the Leipzig Exhibition a number of most interesting 
items concerning Senefelder — his letters, notes, specimens of stone paper, and circulars and 
invitations to see his work, issued in London and Paris. In a circular, dated 1821, it is stated 
that " the stone paper was invented by M. A. Senefelder, as well as a portable press adapted to 
its use, with a metallic economical plate for multiplying all kinds of drawings, compositions, 
manuscripts, and the more easy copying of letters." 

18 



THE CELLINI OF LITHOGRAPHY 

During Senefelder's absence from Germany his friends and relations had 
been doing their best to defraud him. It would be useless to follow him 
through the squabbles and complications and enterprises that filled these years. 
He obtained patents and privileges in Austria, but soon was done out of 
them, and his comment is worth repeating: "The loss of my privilege, for 
which I had made so many sacrifices, grieved me indeed very much ; but I 
was bidden look to the example of other inventors, who had not fared 
better, or derived more benefit from their inventions than I had from mine." 
It seems as if every one connected with Senefelder was bent upon taking 
advantage of him. Probably the fault lay partly with himself. Engelmann 
described him as fitful and impulsive, a creature of whims. He wanted to 
invent, not to run a business ; he was always galloping full tilt toward new 
inventions, and was busy with a portable press that was to revolutionize 
evervthing, or a balloon such as never was before, or a blue that was to 
carry off the prize in a public competition, while the plain matter-of-fact 
man of business was appropriating the profits of his one great discovery. 

He was back in Munich in iSo6, full of a new scheme that was more 
promising than the \'iennese speculations. He had met Baron Aretin, who 
suggested setting up a lithographic establishment, with Senefelder to manage 
it. Baron Aretin could give him the prestige and position he wanted better 
than the calico manufacturers and music publishers who had been his chief 
support. Of course, at the critical moment something went wrong. 
Financially the enterprise never equalled expectations ; but it had another sort 
of success, more important to the art of lithography, if not to Senefelder. 
Hitherto Senefelder had thought little of art ; but the Baron proposed the 
lithographing of drawings and pictures. The earliest publication of note from his 
establishment was a reproduction of Diirer's Missal of jNIaximilian,' the original 
designs being those of the copy in the Royal Library at Munich. It was 
published in iSoS. The lithographs, drawn apparently on stone with a point, 
are by Strixner, who also drew for it the portrait of Diirer in the Pinakothek. 
There was a foreword, not quite filling two pages, transferred to the stone ; 
and the printing was done, if not by Senefelder, at least under his supervision. 
Upon the title-page of a copy picked up in a second-hand book-shop not far from 
Charing Cross, is the autograph of B. Hausmann, the well-known authority 
upon Diirer's drawings, who has given it as his opinion that this publication, 
due to Baron Aretin and Senefelder, did more than anything else to make 
Diirer's designs known. The prints are fairly good ; would be better but for the 
attempt to print each in a different colour . greens and browns being some- 
times weak and pale. Here and there, though not often, lines are rotten. 
De Serres, who saw them during his visit to Munich, thought the mistake 
was to have drawn them with a point instead of a pen. To this he 
' Albrechl Di'ircrs Christluli MyUiologischen Haucheiciimiiigcii. 

21 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

attributed a certain coldness and greyness. The preface is blurred and 
indistinct, an indifferent substitute for type. But the volume explains that 
lithography came from the inventor's shop fully equipped, even colour having 
been used by Senefelder. It is the first important work produced by 
lithography. Other books, other drawings, followed. The resources of the art 
were revealed with each new attempt. 

To see this work all Munich rushed. Aretin's social position would have 
warranted the rush. Besides, all Munich was beginning to think about art, 
in preparation for its role of Modern Athens ; Prince Louis of Bavaria having 
brought back in his baggage from Rome the passion for art — goilt passioniiif, 
in Mme. Recamier's words. He went to the Aretin-Senefelder establishment, 
actually wrote with his royal hands on transfer paper, " Lithography is one 
of the most important discoveries of the eighteenth century," and his royal 
sister, also on transfer paper, says the e.\ulting Senefelder, "wrote the 
expressive words, ' I respect the Bavarians,' which I transferred in their 
presence to the stone, and took impressions from it." So much talk about 
lithography there soon was, that Senefelder's shop, and at times his brothers', 
by mistake, became show places of the town. During the occupation of 
the allied armies the city was full of strangers : Prince Eugene arriving to 
marry a Bavarian Princess ; Napoleon honouring the ceremonies with his 
imperial presence. Maximilian Joseph, who granted the privilege, after he 
had shown his galleries, would exhibit his lithographers : " I cannot let you 
go until you have seen an invention really admirably adapted for the 
draughtsman." Some saw and went their way ; others procured paper, stone, 
and chalk, and made lithographs ; among these not one so enthusiastic as 
General the Baron Lejeune, of Berthier's division, taken to the workshop of 
George and Theobald, but destined by his drawing of a Cossack to set 
fashionable Parisians posing as lithographers. 

To Baron Aretin fashion did not bring fortune. The business languished. 
At the end of four years he had had enough of it. Again Senefelder's indis- 
cretion was held to blame. The fifteen years of the privilege had not elapsed, 
but Senefelder had talked to such purpose that his secret was public property. 
His brothers, who worked with Mitterer, were looked upon by many as its 
lawful proprietors. The partnership was dissolved, and for Senefelder the 
prospect was more unpromising than ever. He was almost forced to apply 
to former pupils for employment ; the press, he says, abused him ; when 
foreigners would help him, he was reproached at home. But toward the close 
of 1809, just when he was all but in despair, he was appointed Inspector of 
the Royal Printing Office with a salary of 1,500 florins a year. The work 
was light, the income a fortune. He is popularly supposed to have ended his 
life in poverty and obscurity, but if so it was the fault of his extravagance ; 
for not only did he enjoy this pension for more than twenty years, but, 

22 




F. Hanfstangl. 
After Van der Heist. 



THE CELLINI OF LITHOGRAPHY 

according to Herr Carl Wagner, his biographer, he married, the second time, 
a prosperous and flourishing lady and lived happily ever after. 

The principal event of Senefelder's life after this was the publication of 
his Complete Course of Lithogi'aphy in 1818 as proof of his discovery. For so 
numerous were the pretenders that he was forced to prove it. In 1810 Strohofer, 
an apprentice of his brothers', published in Stuttgart The Secret of Lithogi'aphy,^ 
the first manual on the subject. It deprived Senefelder of the right to his 
invention.- Left to himself, Senefelder might have made no effort to con- 
tradict him or the other pretenders. But Frederick von Schlichtegroll, Director 
of the Royal Academy in Munich, was so interested in lithography that he 
wrote a series of papers o\\ the subject for the Advertiser for Arts and Rlann- 
factures, a Munich weekly, in which he pointed out how important it would 
be to have an authentic record of the origin of the art, to remove uncertainty, 
and " to prepare the way for a critical history of the new art, at a time when 
it was still possible to obtain the truth." The papers began to appear at the 
end of 1816, and were continued in the year following. Schlichtegroll in 
them addressed himself directly to Senefelder and called upon him "not to 
delay any longer the publication of a minute history of his inventions, accom- 
panied by a complete course of instructions on lithography, detailing all its 
branches and different modes of application." Senefelder consented, Schlich- 
tegroll wrote an interesting Preface, and the book was published in 18 18 by 
Karl Thienemann in Munich, Karl Ceroid in Vienna : A Complete Course of 
Lithography : containing Clear and Explicit Instritctions in all the Different 
Branches and Manners of that Art: accompanied by Illustrative Specimens of 

' Das Gehciiiuiiss dcs Slciiuirucks . . . bcschricbcn von cinciii Licbhaber (Strohofer and Rapp, 
Tubingen, 1810). Wagner says that in the first manual on the subject, apparently another 
edition, Rapp speaks of Senefelder as the inventor. 

= As an example, in Germany as in England and France, of the desire of a certain set to 
defraud Senefelder of his invention, we may refer to the Koniglich Baierischer Gemiilde-Saal zu 
Mitnchen and Schlcifshciin (Munich, 1817, vol. i.), in the middle of which the portrait of Simon 
Schmidt appears, with beneath it his description as Erfindcr der Steindritckcrey. Senefelder's 
book was published the next year in Germany, and as Strixner, Piloty, Schmidt, Strohofer, and 
Andre, among others, must have been still living, and as none of them attempted to answer it, or 
dispute his history once he had recorded it, it seems clear that, for some unknown reason, these 
men had combined together to deprive Senefelder of the credit of his invention — probably for 
business purposes. If there had been the slightest suggestion of right on their side, they would 
have annihilated Senefelder. But though he lived for sixteen years afterwards, these people and 
their claims were never heard of again. It is useless, therefore, to consider or to discuss them 
seriously. In England, Hullmandel endeavoured through the Society of Arts, in i8ig and 1820, 
to claim, if not the invention, the advantages for himself ; and Hullmandel, though in his 
papers read before the Society he never mentions Senefelder's name, stole his press ; and as late 
as 1824, which was before Senefelder's death, in his book The Art of Drawing on Stone, trans- 
lated without acknowledgment from Raucourt, never once refers to him, save by accident in 
Raucourt's preface, which he also appropriated : a worthy predecessor of many modern 
historians of art. Ackermann, however, defended Senefelder, and the Society of Arts awarded 
him their gold medal for his invention in 1819. 

25 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

Drawings, to zvhich is prefixed a History of Lithography frovi its Origin to 
the Present Time.^ This elaborate title explains the scope and contents of the 
volume, which is divided into two parts — the first Senefelder's story of his 
life and work, the second his practical directions. The first part is written 
with frankness, and is not without dignity. It is impossible to question its 
genuineness. It is a most valuable document to all students but those who, 
bewildered by facts, are never happy until they are steering straight for the 
mirage of theory, or the quicksand of oblivion, which has landed more than 
one adventurer in the law court. The second part shows that Senefelder left 
nothing, or next to nothing, for future lithographers to do, but perfect his 
methods. The use of steam, the application of photography, and the working 
of aluminium plates are the only important changes since his time. Not only 
is his book still consulted for practical details by those who know it, but 
every handbook, manual, and history of lithography has been bodily built up 
out of it. In one popular modern manual even Senefelder's footnotes are 
reinserted as the compiler's own. 

The book was dedicated by permission to Maximilian Joseph — "the august 
protector of his work and of the art of lithography," as Senefelder styles 
him. It was translated almost at once into English and French.- The English 
version, retaining the Dedication, was published by Ackermann in the Strand, 
in 1S19. The French was issued in Paris by Treuttel and Wiirtz, of Strasbourg, 
in 1S19, and was dedicated to an enlightened nation '' passionnde pour les arts." 
It was this work that sent Senefelder to France in 18 19, his Government 
duties leaving him very much master of his time. His pupil Knecht was with 
him. They prepared the book for Treuttel and Wurtz, and a studio was 
taken by them in the Rue de Lille. Again he returned in 1820, when his 
brothers Theobald and Clement accompanied him. Lithography in Paris was 
in the first freshness and gaiety of its popularity, and Senefelder, deluded man 
that he ever was, thought he had but to appear to be hailed as lion of the 
day. But his concern was for his new portable press, his wonderful paper 
plates, while the public, excited by the armies and battles of Vernet and 
Charlet, tickled by the caricatures of Boilly and Travies, cared not in the least 
to hear about the method which produced them, about its inventor, or the 
improvements he would have introduced. Some people did condescend to visit 
Senefelder in the Rue de Lille, and in his second house in the Rue Servan- 
doni : 3 not the gay ladies who danced attendance upon Yivant Denon ; not 
the artists kept busy by Engelmann and Lasteyrie ; but grave Ministers of 

' Volhlciiidigcs Lchrhnch dcr Stcindnickerci (Miinchen, 1818), it is to be noted Stone Painting 
and not Lithograph}^ appears in the German edition. 

' Into EngUsh by SchhchtegroU ; into French by Knecht. 

3 In Lorilleux collection at Leipzig already referred to. His letter paper bears the 
address Boulevard Nouvelle 31, Imprimerie de A. Senefelder & Co., as well as Rue 
Servandoni 13. 

26 







Bergeret : Mercury. 

The first French Hthograph, apparently drawn on paper and transferred to stone. 
Printed by Senefelder, 1S04. 



THE CELLINI OF LITHOGRAPHY 

State, sedate Ambassadors. Their patronage was more honourable than 
lucrative, and Senefelder's affairs languished as they had always and everywhere. 

From Paris, Knecht must have made a trip to London, for there is in 
existence a lithographed card of invitation to a meeting at the house of Messrs. 
Treuttel & Co., in Soho Square, "to view the operation of the stone paper, 
metal plates, and portable presses, invented by Mr. Aloys Senefelder. The 
meeting will commence at one and finish at four o'clock." The year is not 
stated and the card, once in the library of the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
has disappeared. The invitation is signed " L. Knecht." The metal plates 
referred to are probably the tin or zinc plates which Senefelder was eager to 
substitute for stone. Of these inventions nothing came. The press he burnt 
one day in a fit of rage. At last, after unprofitable years, he sold out to 
Knecht, who kept the name Senefelder & Co., and in 1831 was able to retire 
with a nice little fortune. 

This seems to have ended Senefelder's active career. He lived to see 
a dozen printers and more flourishing in Paris; Ackermann and Hullmandel 
prospering in London ; Dalarmi in Milan ; Bruci in Barcelona ; a beginning 
made in New York by Barnett and Doolittle. But though the wonders of 
lithography were in every man's mouth, he was forgotten. 

He died on February 24, 1834." His patron Maximilian Joseph erected 
a tombstone to his memorv in Munich ; Bavarians celebrated the hundredth 
anniversary of his birth ; the whole world commemorated the centennial of 
his invention ; statues have been raised in his honour. But the true monument 
to his genius is the work of artist-lithographers. The splendour of their 
achievement more than justifies the vagaries and vacillations of the simple, 
shiftless adventurer, experimenting in his workshop. 

' la connection with the death of Senefeldei-, and his portrait publistied in this book, The 
Lithographer (January 15, 1874, p. 137) tells a curious story. To celebrate the anniversary of Sene- 
felder's birth, his portrait by Hanfstangl, redrawn on MacClure and MacDonald's autographic pro- 
cess paper, was published with this explanation : '' It is copied from the only portrait of Senefelder 
ever taken from life, which was originally drawn on stone by Mr. Hanfstangl, of Munich, an 
intimate friend of Senefelder, who is still living. There is a special interest associated with this 
picture, owing to the following curious incident. Senefelder had a presentiment that if any one 
took his portrait, his decease would soon follow. Consequently, he could never be persuaded to 
have it done. He was in the habit of visiting Mr. Hanfstangl and reading the newspaper aloud, 
while the latter was at work drawing on the lithographic stone. On one of these occasions 
Mr. Hanfstangl took Senefelder's portrait on a prepared stone which he had previously concealed 
in the drawer of his work-table, distracting his attention by frequently referring to a portrait of 
one of his friends, hung near. . . . On subsequently having shown the portrait on stone to some 
friends, he was recommended to ask Senefelder to give him a sitting, which afterwards he 
(Senefelder) consented, with the greatest reluctance, to do. He had not sat longer than half an 
hour, before he complained of feeling unwell and cold, and began to button his coat about him, 
saying that he must go home at once. He left, went to his bed, and died three days afterwards,, 
thus strangely fulfilling his own presentiment." This very pretty story has no truth in it, as a 
number of portraits were made during his lifetime. 



Fm^ 




R. P. BONNINGTON : RUE DU GROS-HoRLOGE A ROUEN. 
From Baron Taylor's Voyages Pittoresqites dans V Ancienne France. 



THE BIRTH OF THE 
ART IN FRANCE 




J. T. ChaRLET : TiREUKS UE LA CuMPAGNIE I.NFERXALE. 
Scratch drawing. 



THE BIRTH OF THE 
ART IN FRANCE 



CHAPTER II 

IF lithography was invented in Germany, it was perfected in France. 
The Institut paid more than an empty compliment to Engelmann, the 
lithographer of Mulhouse who afterwards came to Paris, when it 
declared that, though Senefelder, the German, discovered the new 
method, Engelmann, the Frenchman, proved its artistic possibilities. The 
French were the first to recognize the value of lithography as a means 
of artistic expression. Again and again, early French documents point 
out that the artist is sure of a perfect autographic multiplication of 
his design without the intervention of an engraver. Senefelder always 
insisted upon this, but in Germany lithography was, from the start, mainly 
commercial ; only a few artists, Strixner and Piloty, used it for the 
reproduction of pictures. Instead of the music that came from the German 
presses, instead of the copies of Old Masters, the publication of original 
drawings was the aim of French artists and editors. Had lithography 
been confined to Germany, its history would have been chiefly industrial and 
commercial; if to England, there would have been a record, not of a continuous 
and magnificent movement extending over many years, but of the brilliant 
performances of a few men ; Spain, Austria, Italy, the United States show 
few artistic results. 

There was small promise of its great future when the art was brought to 
Paris. As early as 1800, while Senefelder was in Offenbach, a friend of his 
brothers', Niedermayer by name, was invited by Pleyel, a publisher of music, 
to set up a lithographic press in Paris. The Solenhofen stones, after the long 
journey from Bavaria, so increased in price, while they lost nothing in weight, 
that the expense and trouble disheartened Pleyel, and after a few experiments 
the press stopped. About the same time Frederick Andre started in the Rue 
du Pont-au-Choux. In 1802 he secured his patent for " ime nouvelle manicre 
de graver et dimprimer, ou zDipression chwiiqice." He published music and 
drawings of animals in xhejardin des Plantes. But his work was not satisfactory. 
A Madame Revillon seems to have succeeded him, but by 1S04 she too had 
abandoned the attempt, though in the same year, in the Rue Saint Sebastien, 
another printing office had been opened. For this Bergeret drew a Mercury, 
which in the Catalogue of the Paris Centenary Exhibition is described : "Jusqud 
nouvelles deconvertes, cette piece exdcutde en 1804 peut Hi-e considc^rce conwic la 

Z1 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

■bremiere lithographie artistique f ran false." The most important fact is that it 
is drawn with pen on paper, covered with a tint, as the grain of the paper 
can be seen all over it, and it must have been transferred. 

During the next few years, several artists tried experiments : Guyot- 
Desmares, Schwebach, Paroy among them. Francois Johannot, father of Alfred 
and Tony, came from Offenbach in 1806, but promptly failed, like the others. 
Duplat, a wood-engraver, thought to improve upon Andre by engraving upon 
stone as if it were wood, a method Senefelder had already tried as he had tried 
every other. The Sociitt^ d Encouragement pour I' Industrie Nationale, in the 
fashion these matters are ordered to-day by similar societies, ignored Senefelder 
and awarded a prize of 2,000 francs to Duplat for his supposed discovery. 
Two books show what Duplat could do with his stone engraving : Renouard's 
edition oi Les Fables de La Fontaine., published in 181 1, and Les Lettres a Emilie 
sur la Mythologie in 181 2. But except the Socidtd d Encouragement, no one 
heeded him or his labours. In other shops the stone was engraved with the 
steel-engraver's burin or etched like a copper plate. 

While in Paris lithography made slow progress, in Munich it was attract- 
ing the attention of many Frenchmen passing through the Bavarian capital. 
Colonel Lomet was there in 1806, just after Austerlitz. It was the moment 
when the Aretin-Senefelder partnership was forming, and Bavarian fashion, 
led by royalty, was taking lithography under its protection. Lomet marvelled 
at what he saw ; and providing himself with stones and chalk, made drawings, 
had them printed, and, in 1808, carried the prints to Paris, sure that Senefelder's 
method would, at home, as already in Bavaria and Prussia, be of use for maps 
and plans. Among other things he had drawn in 1807 was the figure of Jean 
Staininger, of the long trailing beard, that decorates the tomb at Braunau- 
sur-l'Inn ; a careful drawing, though weak in handling and colour, of that 
uniform pale, flat grey found in most of the early lithographs. Despite his 
zeal and his display of proofs, he could not rouse the enthusiasm of any official 
in Paris. He produced the stone from which five thousand prints of his design 
had been pulled, and presented it to the director of the Consei'vatoire des Arts 
et Metiers, M. Molard. Apparently no one showed the slightest interest, and 
Lomet, when he was appointed by the Emperor to a post in Spain, took the 
stone from Molard, and left it in the Museum of Natural History in the Jardin 
des Plantes, where it is possible it might still be found. 

In 1806 General the Baron Lejeune also was in Munich. Lejeune was 
an amateur. His battle pictures later on made a talk in Paris, where even 
the Vernets could not rival him at the moment. He was ready to leave 
Munich, his horses already harnessed, when a stone was brought him. He 
sat down and drew his Cossack, and in half an hour it was on its way to 
the printer's. He ate his dinner. With his coffee, a hundred proofs of his 
drawing were served. It was like magic, for there was his design as he 

38 



W^^T^^^'T^^^,^f^'m <'r^i^^ 




THE BIRTH OF THE ART IN FRANCE 

made it, neither marred nor improved by an engraver. Upon his return 
to Paris, he submitted a proof to the Emperor, and suggested the intro- 
duction of the new art into France, where it had already been introduced. 
Napoleon's response was to advise further investigation — the amateur as critic. 
Lejeune seems to have consulted Carl Vernet, David, and Vivant Denon. 
Of the three, Denon alone was discouraging, and perhaps he alone knew that 
the reason of Napoleon's indifference was the fear that the forger would 
profit by the art of lithography. But when Lejeune, summoned almost 
immediately to Spain, came back in 1811, he found Denon converted, and 
his studio a meeting place for the fashionable women of the day, who, led 
by the Countess jNIollien, were all scribbling away on paper and stone. Litho- 
graphy had become the thing, as bridge and the tango are among the same 
class to-day. And yet we are so much better educated than the wTetched 
foreigner of one hundred years ago. 

The visit of the Comte de Lasteyrie to Munich in 1812 had, ultimately, 
important and practical results. He worked two or three months in the shop 
as an apprentice, and tried to persuade printers to return with him and start 
a press in Paris. He made other attempts, but owing to the troubled state 
of Europe nothing came of them until later. During this visit, however, 
he mastered the technique of the art. 

Engelmann first started for himself in IMulhouse, where some of his 
trial proofs are preserved in the Museum. He sent a number of e.\amples of 
his work to Paris, showing the use of pen and chalk and wash, the way 
music could be printed, the transferring of writing" from paper to stone, 
the imitation of wood-engraving, and printing on canvas. The first artists 
to draw for him were Carl Vernet, then well over si.xty ; Regnault, his 
old master ; Girodet, David's pupil : all three at the height of their 
fame. Engelmann had the sense to know that, where art is concerned, 
the artist is the best workman. The Socidtd d' Encouragement complimented 
him, and assured him that the Socidt^ gave him full and entire credit for 
being the first in France to achieve such artistic perfection. The Acaddmie 
des Bcaiix-Arts drew up a report of peculiar interest, as it proves that the 
real value of lithography was appreciated in F'rance from the beginning. 
For, after a short history of the invention, and a technical explanation, it 
declares that lithography accomplished nothing less than the multiplication 
of original drawings, which was Engelmann's explanation of the success 
of lithography. An ingenious inventor, the report said, had offered artists 
an ink and a pencil with which they could make their drawings so that these 
could yield thousands of copies, and lose nothing in the process. It 
admitted that without the intervention of another man who, whatever his 
cleverness, was still an interpreter, the artist's own work was multiplied as 
if by enchantment, not the least touch, not the slightest detail lost in the 

41 c* 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

print, which was as faithful as a reflection in a mirror. The Commission 
was perhaps unduly impressed by the ease with which different forms of 
engraving could be imitated on stone. But its early appreciation of the 
autographic value of lithography had everything to do with arousing the 
interest of French artists in the invention of Senefelder. 

Later on, Engelmann removed to Paris, and started a shop in the 
Rue Cassette, No. i8. Another shop was opened by Delpech, first at 
Sevres, then on the Quai Voltaire. On the cover of an album published 
by him about 1818 is a lithograph by Carl Vernet : a boy with a fair- 
sized stone on his head is leaving the shop, and groups — a woman in poke 
bonnet and men in broad-brimmed hats — stand spellbound in front of the 
windows : an excellent advertisement. 

Lasteyrie busied himself with the printing of music, playing-cards, imita- 
tions of wood and steel engravings and etchings, absurd shams for a time in 
vogue. He published a series of copies of Greek vases, printed in two 
colours, black and red, a practical application of Senefelder's invention of 
chromo-lithography. Artists worked with him : Denon, Baron Gros, 
Hyppolite Lecomte, Bourgeois, the Vernets. He himself produced portraits, 
rather hard and grey and lifeless. But his house in the Rue du Bac was 
best known as the place where Society played at lithography. From 
him Denon sought the stones for his pretty portraits so popular in the 
fashionable world : of Mademoiselle Esmenard ; of the Comtesse Mollien ; of 
the Prince de Beauvau ; of Miss Owenson, the English beautv to whom all 
Paris lost its susceptible heart ; of Lasteyrie, clean-shaven, curly-haired, in 
high stock ; of his friend Brunet — the last two on one stone, as if for 
economy. And Society flocked like sheep after Denon to Lasteyrie's for 
lithographic materials. A typical incident of a period when everybody, 
from Princesses of the royal house to Madame Tallien, from generals to 
diplomats, condescended to the sport, is told of the company staying towards 
the close of 18 16 at the Chateau de Virry. Madame Perregaux, wife of 
a banker, was entertaining Madame Recamier, Madame Moreau, Madame 
Raguse, Madame Lallemand, Denon, Horace Vernet, in such high favour 
at Versailles that lesser doors opened easily to him, Delessert, Freville, Hulot. 
One day after dinner a lithographic stone and chalk were produced by 
Madame Perregaux, and, for the amusement of the company, Vernet drew 
her portrait, prim, stiff, choked with voluminous ruffles, her hair a mass of 
heavy puffs upon the top of her head, ringlets falling on either side of her 
forehead ; the drawing, for Vernet, weak and hesitating. But the company 
were charmed with it. The stone was confided to Lasteyrie, eleven proofs 
pulled, and on the back of each, printed from another stone, was 
the statement that no one else possessed " this lithograph of Madame 
Perregaux, made at Virry, the 24th of November, 1816." A press was 

42 




::s^:^^r 






A. RaFFET : Il.S GROGNAIENT MAIS LES SL'IVAIEXT TOUJOUKS. 



THE BIRTH OF THE ART IN FRANCE 

set up in the Tuileries. The Duchesse de Berri sketched on the stone, as 
the Due de Montpensier had years before during his exile on the banks of 
the Thames. Scarce a palace or hotel was without its press. Some 
amateurs held exhibitions in their salons. Comte Simeon showed the Foire 
en Transylvanie, by Lancedelly, which was "printed in eleven colours and 
required thirty-three printings for each proof." This was the Comte 
Simeon who haunted by preference Senefelder's shop in the Rue Servandoni, 
where Ministers of State and foreign Ambassadors met in their leisure hours 
in deference to the royal whim, just as they meet at the National Sporting 
Club or on the golf links in these days of refinement. In a word, the 
craze erew to such dimensions that when, in 1818, Mairet's book ^ on the 
subject — the first that appeared in France — was issued, there was as great a 
demand for it as for Chateaubriand's newest work. It was as if to-day a 
treatise on process could compete with Hall Caine. 

Engelmann enjoyed his share of fashionable and royal patronage. A 
lithograph of a later date shows him in his workshop, receiving Charles X 
with ceremony in a large apartment, an immaculate printer pulling a proof, 
the proprietor presenting another to the King. But his real work was the 
publication of music and drawing-books, the copying of manuscripts, the manu- 
facture of the box cover and wrapper, the lithograph of commerce. By degrees 
he attracted artists who looked upon lithography as something more than the 
plaything it was to Denon. For him, Guerin made the three lithographs 
that are now the treasures of the collector : Le Paresscux, Le Vigilant, 
and L' Anioitr Couchd, classical exercises prized among the first artistic litho- 
graphs. J. B. Isabey, Robert, Baron Atthalin worked for him, contributing 
largely, he thought, to the progress of the art. He interested the Government. 
A lithographic press was set up in the School of Fonts et Chaussics, where 
Lomet would have had it years before, and Raucourt, one of Engelmann's 
pupils, was put in charge. Nor did Engelmann cease in his efforts to improve 
and advance lithography, though by 1S18 it may be said to have passed from 
the experimental stage and its pre-eminence as an art to have been assured. 
Of Engelmann's labours it is well to dispose before turning to the work of 
the great lithographers. On February 7, 1821, the Socidte d! Encouragement 
reported favourably upon his procddc du /avis lithographiqtte, or drawing in 
wash. Gaillot, another printer, changed Engelmann's name of /avis litho- 
gi'aphique to aquatinte lithographique, and in 1824 prepared a manual upon 
the subject and issued it from the house of Senefelder. In 1827 Bregeaut in 
a fresh manual — the town was flooded with text-books for a while — accepted 
Gaillot as the inventor. But the truth is that Senefelder had forestalled 
Engelmann, Gaillot, and all pretenders. Engelmann's object was to see if, 

' Notice siir Id Lilliographie oil I'Arl d'hnpriincr siir Pierre. Dijon ; 1818. First published 
anonymously. i\Iairet's name appears in the edition of 1824, Chatillon-sur-Seine. 

45 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

by wash, he might get delicate tones not to be had from the chalk, the 
difficulty of producing them being then thought a fault in lithography ; a 
strange fact to us who find the first lithographs deficient in strength and 
richness and depth. Engelmann worked with Merimee and Baltard to perfect 
this method, but eventually he admitted that artists, familiarizing themselves 
with wash, discovered that the same delicacy could be obtained with chalk, 
and his invention lost its importance. He was honest enough to confess 
that Gaillot had, in some way, improved upon him. In 1838 the Soci(fl(f 
d'Encouragei)icnt, which had ten years earlier offered a prize of 2,000 francs 
for a lithograph in colour, gave it to Engelmann ; and the Socidtd Industrielle 
of Mulhouse bestowed upon him a gold medal. The year before he had 
taken out a patent for a method of printing in colour, chromo-lithography, 
which he appropriated as his invention. But Senefelder had already done 
what Engelmann was so proud of doing ; though the name — chromo-litho- 
graphy — originated with Engelmann, and the method was much improved by 
him. Senefelder had left nothing for the lithographer but to imitate him. 

Engelmann's career is a contrast to Senefelder's. He was not successful 
to the end. But there were many years of success before his failure in 1830, 
when he returned to Mulhouse. Always he was a prominent figure, honoured 
in Paris and abroad. His shop was a centre to which all seeking instruc- 
tion went, most notably Bruci of Barcelona, Madrazo, Hullmandel of 
London. He was instrumental in establishing lithographic presses in Barce- 
lona, and, at the invitation of Madrazo, in Madrid. He started a branch 
house in London ; Engelmann, Graf, and Coindet was the company, and the 
Hanharts were the successors. He was concerned in enterprises in Vienna, 
Berlin, and St. Petersburg. He published two books, a manual and a treatise;' 
the latter, like Senefelder's, gives the history and the technical explanation of 
lithography. It contains an excellent bibliography of early works on the subject, 
and a list of awards for inventions and improvements. In the little manual is 
a print in brown and black and white, which marks probably the beginning 
of his work in colour. The other illustrations are of small importance. 

No one contributed more than Engelmann to the development of litho- 
graphy. If fortune deserted him the art he fostered progressed with such 
strides that by 182S, in the Department of the Seine alone, there were 
twenty-four lithographic establishments, with one hundred and eighty 
presses, giving employment to five hundred people and producing three 
million francs' worth of prints of one kind or another. When Engelmann died 
in 1839 he had lived long enough to see some of the greatest lithographs 
that have ever been made, to know that throughout the civilized world he 
had contributed to the prosperity and popularity of the art. 

' Manuel da DcssinaUuir Lithographe, Paris, 1S22, and Traitc TJu'on'qiie cl Praliqtte tic 
Litliographie. Mulhouse, Paris : 1839-40. 

46 




T. Gericault : The Boxers. 



THE GREAT PERIOD 
IN FRANCE 



.aiiaia 3<1 Sl^OHr/^a : Y3aA?i lY.iorA 






Eugene Isabey ; Environs de Dieppe. 



i^v'^s^ps:: ■^i;.fM^ss3?s?3^^ 




THE GREAT PERIOD 
IN FRANCE 



CHAPTER III 

FOR twenty years lithography in France was so popular, its practice 
so widespread, and its results so splendid, that it is difficult to give 
a complete record. In England and Germany a few names exhaust 
the list of artist-lithographers. In France the artist who did not use 
stone was the exception. The new art fascinated all : the painter who made 
occasional prints and the draughtsmen who devoted their lives to lithography. 
And their prints are a more eloquent history of the artistic, political, and 
social events of the two great decades of the art than any written chronicle, 
althouQ'h the makino- of these events into literature or historv was never the 
artists' aim. 

The number of lithographic printers increased with the number of artists. 
To the three firms of Engelmann, Lasteyrie, and Delpech were added the 
establishments of Gihaut, Motte, Villain, Lemercier, Bry, and others in Paris. 
Before long there was not a town in France without its lithographic press,, 
where the printing was as good as in the capital. Inventors never ceased 
inventing methods and devices that had been invented by Senefelder. Hand- 
books multiplied ; Knecht, Mairet, Bregeaut, Raucourt, Chevallier, Langlume 
repeating more or less pompously and ponderously what Senefelder had said 
clearly and simply. The Socidt^ d' Encouragement offered prizes and bestowed 
rewards for anything and everything the lithographer wanted, or did not want. 
Commerce disputed for lithography with art, the lithographer killed the metal 
engraver by cheapness, and the greater cheapness of Germany and the 
French provinces came near being the death of lithography. 

From 1S17 onward prints were issued by thousands, mostly in Albums, 
for a while as all-pervading in Paris as Keepsakes in England. They 
were usually without text ; half the time without dates ; and with the most 
wonderful covers adorned by copybook lettering and flourishes, the ideal of 
decorators. They multiplied to such an extent that Charlet, in the design 
for the title of his Album of 1S25, has a gay litde devil running off with 
armfuls of prints, and underneath the legend, Le Diable emporte ks A/bums. 
In 1830, Achille Deveria, on the cover of another, shows the poor lithographer 
crushed under a pile of albums. 

One of the first, and still the most ambitious, of all publications illustrated 
by lithography, in France — or in the world — was a serial : Baron Taylor's 

53 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

Voyages Pittoresqnes et Roinantigiics dans F Ancienne France, in which 
some people see the birth of Romanticism. Tlie first volume, published by 
Didot, appeared in 1820, and the work was planned on a scale only possible 
in an enterprise backed by the State. It is the most magnificently monu- 
mental artistic job of the century, a glorified version of the English Landscape 
Anmia/, an artistic predecessor of Beautiful England and books of the 
Picturesque Europe type. The idea had occurred to Baron Taylor in 18 10, 
when the expense of metal engraving put it out of the question, even for 
the State. Then Bourgeois, one of the first to draw on stone, showed his 
lithographs to the Baron, who saw in this new method the means of realizing 
the idea which occupied him for the rest of his life. For a while the results 
obtained were not reliable and satisfactory enough to warrant the undertaking. 
Not until 18 1 8, and, he says, thanks to Engelmann, could he venture upon 
it. But so promptly did he then go to work that the first parts were ready 
in 1820. It was a large folio of text and drawings. The price of each part 
was twelve francs fifty centimes, the number of parts in each volume varying, 
and the whole was to cost no less than eight thousand six hundred and fifty 
francs. But by 1847 the expense to the State became a scandal and 
it was pointed out that, if completed, it would cost two million and a half 
francs, each subscriber would be called upon to pay thirty-three thousand 
francs, and the publication would run through one hundred and three years ! 
Nineteen volumes were issued, and the work, begun in 1820, dragged on into 
the sixties. 

Charles Nodier and De Cailleux were Baron Taylor's literary editors. 

The illustrations, Nodier predicted in the Preface to the first volume, would 

be a record of the discoveries and progress of lithography, and he was right. 

In the volumes you can trace the development of the art from the first pale, 

colourless drawings, and the first tints with the hard, sharp outlines that were 

the despair of the early artists, to the elaborate designs, the difficult lithotints, 

the perfectly managed colour at the end ; from the timid separate print to the 

amazingly bad and elaborate page decorations, flamboyant borders, with 

pictures set in them, that filled the sections on Languedoc and Picardy, 

beginning in the year 1833, when medisevalism was the order of the day. 

And the artists who contributed were the men who made lithography. In 

the first volume were Baron Atthalin, Horace Vernet, Bourgeois, pioneers all 

three of them; Baron Taylor himself; Picot ; Daguerre, it is amusing to note; 

Fragonard, who was constantly designing " romantic " subjects for Engelmann, 

Delpech, and Gihaut, and later on for Ricourt ; Jean Baptiste Isabey. And 

there followed in quick succession men of the distinction of Bonington, 

Eugene Isabey, Charlet, Aubry-Lecomte, Paul Huet, Gericault. And there 

was Ingres in a tail-piece, one of his four lithographs, two of the others, 

portraits, and the fourth, his Odalisque in Delpech's Album for 1826. And 

54 




A. Deveria : Portrait of R. J. Lemercier, Founder ok Lemercier's Printing House. 



THE GREAT PERIOD IN FRANCE 

Delacroix, too, did a tail-piece, and Carl Vernet, and Eugene Deveria. And 
there were borders designed or lithographed by Tony Johannot, Celestin 
Nanteuil, and Viollet-le-Duc. And in the earliest volumes Prout and Harding 
found a place, and not long after, Haghe and Boys, more frequently than 
not working in the lithotint to which Hullmandel gave his name. For 
France, which may be narrow or patriotic enough to exclude the foreigner 
from its internal or political economy, has never recognized nationality in art. 
Some of the numbers were not only illustrated by Englishmen, but were 
printed in London by Day and Haghe. It should be remembered that this 
was a National, a Government work. But the Frenchman's idea of art is not 
bounded by his arrondissevient. Job as the book was, it never fell into the 
hand of the local genius, supported by County Councils. Baron Taylor kept 
the control, and entrusted the work to artists, not amateurs. Until the 
introduction of the photo-lithograph in 1863 the excellence of the illustration 
was more or less sustained. The latest prints may not have for us the 
interest of the first, but the drawings of Ciceri, Sabatier, Villeneuve, Bichebois, 
Dauzats, Chapuy, Emile Sagot, and Blanchard are the work of accomplished 
draughtsmen. Ciceri and Sabatier, sometimes collaborating, sometimes separ- 
ately, showed that they could not only see and express the romance of 
Dauphine, but that they could use a tint to the finest purpose. It is suggestive 
to compare the tint work of 1820 with the technical masterpieces of 1S40 
and thereabouts. 

The average was so high that Bonington's prints do not seem as supreme 
as one would expect from the praise of his contemporaries, Delacroix among 
them. His Rue du Gros-Horloge a Rouen, the most famous, came out in 
1825, and it is, save technically, much overrated ; the others, mostly in 
Normandy, followed quickly ; and two years later his work ended with his 
death. The gems of the collection are the drawings of Eugene Isabey. 
M. Beraldi says that if Bonington had not made his Gros Ho^doge, Isabey 
would be a lithographer without rival. But Bonington never equalled Isabey's 
Saint Jean a Thiers, the Chateau de Chaudesaignes, the Chateau de Polignac. 
The way he could seize the most pictorial point of view, using chalk, stump, 
scraper, or wash to work up his design until one hardly knows how his eftect 
has been obtained, is marvellous. It is a matter of regret that he did not 
give more time to lithography. In the same year (1833) that Saint Jean a 
Thiers, the little town piling up picturesquely on the high cliffs, was issued in 
Baron Taylor's book, his Six Marines dessint'es sur Pierre was published by 
Morlot and Lan ; studies of shipping and coast towns, full of life and move- 
ment, which must be ranked above his work in the Voyages Romantiq^ies. 
These are the finest things of their kind that have been done in lithography. 
In 1S32 the Souvenirs d'Eugene Isabey was brought out in Paris, London, 
and New York. Mr. Atherton Curtis, who has shown a keen appreciation 

57 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

of Isabey, and who knows more about him than the French authorities, gives 
the number of his prints as less than sixty, but adds that their artistic 
excellence places him among the six or seven great lithographers. Isabey, in 
his lithographs, even more than in his paintings, was the exponent of 
Romanticism. No one has expressed more powerfully the waves of the sea, 
the fury of the winds, or the tragedy of the wrecks, than in the dramatic 
Brick Echoiid; no one has made more perfect lithographs than these, 
in which he has carried his chalk drawing to such a degree of perfection 
that he has given with it the effect of wash. No one has suggested more 
sympathetically the picturesqueness of the fishing villages along the shores than 
in his EtiviTons de Dieppe. And he was never so engrossed by his emotion 
or his subject as to be indifferent to technique. He has left not one print 
the student can afford to overlook. 

Naturally, Baron Taylor's book inspired numerous collections of picturesque 
views, though none on such lavish scale, from Bonington's Petite Norinandie 
to Deroy's Vues Prises en Italie twenty years later, with a long series con- 
necting the two. Amateurs went forth in search of the picturesque and pub- 
lished the results. None of these publications, however, could compete with 
a State-supported enterprise, and the Voyages Pittoresques remains the type 
of all works of the kind. 

The Napoleonic Legend, as the French call the mass of pictured and 
written reminiscences and stories and myths that grew up about the memory 
of Napoleon, never raised such another monument as Baron Taylor's book, 
but it inspired a countless number of prints and series and albums. From 
the beginning Carl and Horace Vernet were drawing soldiers. Horace Vernet's 
lithograph of his father, in 1818, shows the old man, his hat off, hard at work 
sketching a passing group of Hussars. But to Horace, who in 181 7 drew his 
first Napoleon on stone, is given the honour of having originated the Legend. 
His Napoleon was never a very heroic figure, but it sufficed to revive old 
enthusiasm, and, as La Farge once said, many of his rapid sketches in chalk 
are as full as his big and illustrious pictures are empty. His military 
anecdotes often have decided humour or sentiment, after a fashion. A pig in 
shako and boots and cloak presented as a new recruit, looters breaking into 
a lady's wardrobe in search of fodder, a poor little soldier offering to his 
corporal a canary in its cage as a share of the booty, are simple jests sure 
to please the public. His great work was the Uniforincs des Ai-mees 
Fraiifaises, in collaboration with Eugene Lami, published by Gide in 1822. 
It contained one hundred prints, and, like many of the early albums, was in 
colour. It was a mine of information for men who came after, and very 
likely suggested Menzel's series of the Uniforms of the Army of Frederick the 
Great. Lami was as good a draughtsman as Vernet, and his work had more 
individuality. Not so much his early work, the big, grey, weak lithographs 

58 



THE GREAT PERIOD IN FRANCE 

elated 1S17, 181S, and signed "Eugene," as the elaborated designs of his 
more matured period, especially his drawings of Street Barricades in the 
Revolution of 1S30, which have all the action, the go, of Charlet or Raffet. 
But Lami is best known for his records of everyday life — of " modernity," to 
use Baudelaire's word: his Souvenirs de Londres (1826), his Six Quarliers de 
Paris (1827), his Vie de Chdieau (1S28); notes, chiefly, of a world to which 
he always aspired, Lami being something of a snob, a dandy, an Anglo- 
maniac ; all these done in pen and ink, and coloured by hand in the fashion 
of the time. 

A score of other men made lithographs of Napoleon and the Grande 

Armde : Gericault, whose big grey Canonniers de la Garde Impcriale dates 

back to 1818, but most of whose hundred lithographs had the horse for 

subject ; Marlet, as sprightly and young an old man as Carl Vernet ; Vigneron ; 

Hyppolite Lecomte ; Bellange, and Victor Adam. Even Daumier made a 

short excursion into the field of Napoleonic Legend. But Charlet and Raffet 

were the two who developed and perfected the work begun by Horace Vernet. 

Delacroix thought that Charlet, "one of the greatest men of our 

country," was not sufficiently appreciated : a statue would never be put up to 

a man who had done nothing but play with a little bit of pencil and make 

litde figures. But Charlet had small reason to complain. If Engelmann, 

and Lasteyrie, and Motte, who brought out his first drawings of soldiers, 

grey, pale dummies, posing in uniform, were afraid of Charlet so long as he 

was a new man to be launched, from the time Gihaut published the Reciieil 

de Croquis a I' Usage des Petits Enfants \x\ 1822 his success and popularity were 

assured. His yearly album after this appeared with the regularity of the 

Christmas number. Sometimes it took the form of a drawing-book, with 

primitive landscapes and fairly good figures in pen-and-ink, for his pupils (1839) ; 

sometimes of a collection of Croquis a la Maniere Noire, dedicated to 

Beranger (1840). But as a rule the soldier was his subject. It was he who 

deified Napoleon and canonized the Army. The last lithograph he made, 

the day before his death, was of Napoleon as General-in-Chief in Italy. 

His soldiers have all the bravery, the splendour, the glory of Napoleon's 

veterans, and all the wit, the gaiety, the absurdity of the Petits Pioupious 

still singing away their fatigue on a long day's march, or loafing about 

the parks and streets of the garrison town. They sweep across his paper 

in lines and battalions and masses, making the mad charge or beating the 

disordered retreat, and on the few inches of printed surface he gives the 

movement and confusion and fury of the scene. His were drawings the 

people could love and understand. If his sentiment was simple, his technique 

was fine, all were done with a style that compels admiration. Had Charlet 

relied upon the text below his drawing his fame would have perished 

with the generation that laughed and cried at his bidding. It would have 

61 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

been of no more lasting universal value than that of Cruikshank or Leech. 
He drew in chalk, in wash, with a stump ; he scraped, he tried a pen ; and 
nothing in the whole range of his work is so delightful technicall)'' as his 
prints in the vianicre noire, as the French call the method of scraping the 
design on a stone covered with ink. Some of these have a depth of colour, 
a suggestion of mystery not found in his chalk work. 

Raffet is at present better known than Charlet, whose pupil he was. 
At first Raffet — who was contributing to an album in 1825 — and pub- 
lishing one of his own through Moyon in 1827 — worked much in the 
manner of Charlet ; it is hard to distinguish the pupil's prints from the 
master's. But by degrees he developed a style of his own. His 
Napoleon, whether the slight, long-haired youth of Directory days, or the 
short, fat Emperor, is more theatrical than Charlet's Little Corporal in the 
cocked hat. Sometimes allegorical figures float into Raffet's compositions, 
where they are decidedly out of place. Like Charlet, he published album after 
album. He followed the Army through the Directory, the Consulate, the 
Empire. He recorded the Siege de la Citadelle d Anvers (1834), the Retraite 
de Constantine, the Expedition de Rome (1849). He made a study of uniforms. 
He chronicled the humours of the camp, and is then most like Charlet. He 
tried his hand at caricature. He illustrated Scott or Scotch subjects. He 
journeyed through Eastern Europe : Voyages dans la Riissie JMeridionale et la 
Ci'imee, par la Hongrie, la Valachie et la Moldavie, et retonr par Constantinople 
(1838-48). Altogether, he did an incredible amount of work. He had 
intervals of commonplace, and it is not good to go through many of his 
albums at a sitting; but he had intervals of inspiration. He rendered the 
mystery of the battlefield, the tragedy of war, as have few others. The smoke 
of battle for him was as full of poetic possibilities as a fog of London. Prints 
like the impressive Revite Noctiirnc, the R&ueil, the drdimdiixc lis grognaient mais 
les suivaient toiijoni's, linger in the memory, where the big pretentious battle- 
paintings of his contemporaries are forgotten. The feeling, the dramatic force 
of the Revue Nocturne, are unsurpassed in lithography. And Raffet steered 
clear of the sentiment that is so maudlin and tedious in many of Charlet's 
series. Most of his work is in chalk, but he too tried almost every other 
method ; he drew with brush, stump, pen ; he made lithotints, and the 
washes in the print are crisp and clean as in water-colour ; he often 
used paper. It is not always possible to tell when the lithographers of 
his generation did use paper, unless they say so. In Rafifet's case the fact 
was noted because several of his experiments were for the printer Bry, his 
father-in-law, who wanted the artist's name to advertise paper of his own 
invention.' 

' Coslitiiies Militaircs Franfais cl Etraugers, Portraits ct Siijcts Divers, Lithographies an Crayon, 
an Lavis, a VEsioinpe ct siir Papier. Auguste Bry : i860. 

62 



ir¥ f ^ -^ i"! :i -iF'f m^m-^mm^^-^M ^-^^^^^7, f .-t-t':- -t 




Gavarxi : Portraits of E. and J. ue Goxcourt. 



THE GREAT PERIOD IN FRANCE 

The lithographs of social and political subjects begin as early and 
extend over as long a period as the Napoleonic Legend. In 1817 the 
people, who were worshipping Horace Vernet's Napoleon, were also roaring 
over the famous Calicot, created by Vigneron, Guillot, and half a dozen 
others : the unfortunate counter-jumper who ventured to play the swell and 
to carry his spurs into the shop. Carl Vernet — there was nothing he did 
not do — used the new medium to caricature the Allies in Paris, as of old he 
had ridiculed the Merveilletises and Incroyables of the Directory. Early in 
the twenties he was illustrating the Cris de Paris, single figures drawn in 
chalk, coloured by hand, stiff in drawing, muddy in colour. Bosio and Jean 
Baptiste Isabey made caricatures. Boilly too flooded the town with popular 
types, studies of hunchbacks in the spirit of Mayeux, beggars, Savoyards ; 
his Recueil de Dessins Lithographiqjics, from the house of Delpech, belongs 
to the year 1822 ; his Epoitx Heiireiix to 1826 ; his Sept Sujets Moratix to 
1828. His interest for us is technical; his drawing is dry and tedious, 
but it is astonishing to see how the colour in his lithographs has preserved 
its freshness and brilliancy. Most of it, of course, was by hand. 

Gericault's hundred lithographs were made before 1830. His first album, 
Various Subjects drawn from Life and on St07ie, was published in 1821, by 
Rodwell and Martin, of New Bond Street, London. Hullmandel was the 
printer. The title on the cover is introduced into a design by Gericault 
representing a sandwichman with an advertisement of the artist's unsuccessful 
picture the Shipivreck of the Medusa. The subjects are mostly English — the 
English Farrier, the Adelphi Arch, the Coal Waggon, the Beggar at the 
Bakers Door, the Piper. This portfolio is interesting both technically and 
historically. M. Bouchot, and French authorities following him, state that 
some of the prints were done on stone paper, the invention of Senefelder. 
No such statement is in the portfolio, nor on the prints at the Bibliothcque 
Nationale, where, however, there is a print, a drawing in pen-and-ink, of a 
woman and children, rather weak and pale, on which is written, evidently 
by the artist, " Drawn on stone-paper," and in the opposite corner, " Printed 
by Marc-Gazca, 10, Radcliffe Row, City Road." Evidently Gericault was 
experimenting with Senefelder's latest invention. Several of the English series 
were copied by Coignet from the prints. Consequently the lithographs printed 
in Paris, though about the same size and scarcely varying in effect, are the 
reverse of those published in England. The English are signed Gdricault 
del., and the French ones Gericault invt. The badness of English printing- 
does not account for the change in the series, in this case the English printing 
being much better than the French. It is more likely that Gericault had had a 
disagreement with his English publishers. Other series were for Gihaut, Engel- 
mann, and Mme. Hulin : principally studies of horses. In 1823 Gericault, with 
Lami, illustrated Byron for Gihaut. His lithographs were done in all sorts of 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

ways. At the British Museum there is a curious print of a man carrying a banner 
that loolcs liive a copy of Franz Hals, in which the effect is got by scraping. 
Many scarcely justify Gericault's tremendous reputation. Many are full of vigour 
and vitality, even of the brutality it is the correct thing t;) find in them ; the 
Coal Waggon, for example, the Adelphi Arch, or, more than all, the Boxers, 
printed by Motte, with its fine study and expression of character, its 
uncompromising realism, its technical ingenuity ; the body of the black 
man being rendered in pen-and-ink, while all the rest is in chalk, except for 
the pen lines in the white man's trousers. Albums of lithographs after 
G(5ricault's paintings and drawings, some by Deveria and Louis Boulanger, 
were published as early as 1825. 

In the same decade Henry Monnier was producing his impressions of 
London in Postilions et Cockers and Croqiiis (1825 and 1826), and of Paris 
in Six Ouarticrs de Paris and Vues de Paris (1828 and 1829). Many of his 
albums, like so much French work, were published in both cities, with the 
legend given in French and English. The lithographs for most of these 
series are in pen-and-ink, and coloured by hand. Monnier found his subjects 
in the calicot, in the grisette, and in the little clerk, in the lawyer, in the 
boii7geois — his immortal M. Joseph Prudhomme, the type of consequential, fatuous, 
self-satisfied, respectable mediocrity, with Mayeux and Robert Macaire, rivals 
Napoleon as the people's hero. Grandville, too, was commencing his study of 
the bourgeois and his tiresome series of animals masquerading as men, his 
sheep-headed clerks, his parrot barbers, his bulldog policemen. In 1829 his 
Metamorphoses du Jotw had a prodigious success, and his Voyage ponr 
r Eternity saw the light. Pigal was flinging his jests at the working class. 
Travies was creating Mayeux. Gavarni was starting with his R^crdations 
diabolico-fatitasmagoriques, and was working for La Mode, Emile Girardin's 
sheet, before 1830, before Philipon had founded La Caricatiwe and Le Charivari, 
the papers with which the names of these men are so intimately associated. 
And publishers were flooding town and provinces with diableries of the same 
kind, with singeries and petitcs niaccdoines, with single prints either plain or 
coloured by the artist ; in a word, with all the Nouveattti's Lithographiques 
which were the chief attraction of Monsieur Aubert's Portfolios and weekly 
announcements. 

The work of Goya had begun to appear, and Goya had more influence 
on the art — the technique — of lithography in France than any Frenchman. 
In 1824 Motte published the Caricatures Espagnoles after Goya; in 1S25 
the Bull Fights followed. To their appearance M. Beraldi dates what he 
calls the second flowering of lithography — la floraison des roniantiqiies, des 
lithographes coloristes, des peintres de 1830 — the artists most intimately con- 
nected with L'Artiste. Louis Boulanger went so far as to pay Goya the 
compliment of borrowing groups bodily out of the Caricatures for the Ronde 

66 




Gavakm : Lk Bal Masque. 



THE GREAT PERIOD IN FRANCE 

dit Sabbat, a huge lithograph that was a seven clays' wonder in the studios. 
Eueene Delacroix, about whom all le jatne France rallied, began to turn his 
attention seriously to lithography. Delacroix never made two ends meet in 
his lithographic adventures, but the effect of his example upon the younger 
generation is not to be over-estimated. He had already done a few insig- 
nificant prints, some of them feeble caricatures, for Le JMiroir and other 
sheets. But his great work came after his study of Goya. In 1825 his 
print of Macbeth and the Witches, full of strong colour and gloom and 
romance, marked the change. In 1828 Motte published his famous series 
of seventeen lithographs illustrating Faust, which gained for him, so he says, 
a reputation as leader of U I^cole du Laid. They frightened the bom-geois so 
effectually that they did not sell. Delacroix thought the text that Motte 
printed with them was responsible, but a better reason is the De Goncourts" 
description, '' Ics poses tordues et les epilepsies de main." Goethe was satisfied,, 
but this does not mean much more than when the poet to-day happens tO' 
express satisfaction with the illustrator of his verse. However, despite their 
affectation, despite their self-conscious romanticism, these illustrations to Fatist 
are as powerful and dramatic as anything that had yet been done in French 
lithography, and in a fine set of prints — the printing varies considerably^ 
are full of richness of colour, scrength, originality of treatment. To the same 
period belong two of the most celebrated e.xamples of lithography — The Lion 
Devouring his Prey, Lion de r Atlas (1829) and the Tiger, Tigre Royal 
(1829) : impressive and terrible as drawings, marvellous as lithographs, such 
fine quality, such beautiful depth in the shadows, such subtle variety in the 
blacks did Delacroix get out of the stone. His later work is not so 
remarkable. The seven prints for GaHz de Berlichingen and the thirteen for 
ILamlet (1832-43) have not the force of the Fanst series, the dignity of the 
Lion and the Tiger. The stones for LLainlet, which were not destroyed, were 
framed as pictures by an admirer of Delacroix. But at the time so friendly 
a paper as L' Artiste could not but express disappointment ; Delacroix would 
have to do wonders in the Chamber of Deputies and the Church of St. Denis, 
it said, to remove the impression made by " ce qtion appelle voire Hamlet.'' 
His masterpieces remain, however, and in the years between their publication 
and that of his LLamlet the stvle of the greater number of French litho- 
graphers had been formed or modified by the example of Delacroix, who, 
in lithography, was the pupil of Goya. 

Most lithographs up to this time had been in chalk or in pen-and- 
ink intended often to be coloured by hand. But now tone and wash were 
perfected. By 1830 Motte was getting artists to work in la nianiere noire, 
mezzotint applied to stone. Achille Deveria, Motte's son-in-law, did the first 
print according to INIotte's method. La Conversation Anglaisc, dated January 
10, 1830; that is, the first in which the stone was entirely covered with 

69 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

ink ; washes and scraping to a less extent occur in earlier prints. Isabey, 
Deveria, Huet, Roqueplan, and Charlet produced albums containing some 
of their finest prints in the manure noire. Saint- Evre and Boulanger 
■experimented. So great was the preoccupation with it that two years later 
Tudot, another printer, was improving upon Motte by the introduction of a 
tool for scraping, claiming the invention, and being rewarded and medalled 
for it. And other printers and artists helped to develop this method and the 
lithotint of Hullmandel, practically the same as the lavis lithographiqiie of 
Engelmann, in both cases the original hint having been given by Senefelder. 

Lithography was also used largely for the Illustration of newspapers. 
L' Album, Jotirnal dcs Arts, de la Litti'ratitrc, des Mosiirs et des Theatres, that 
had a chequered existence between 1821 and 1829, published a few litho- 
graphs. So did Le Miroir (1821-3), for which Delacroix worked. So 
did La Liberty, in which many of the younger men sowed their romantic 
oats; and La Silhouette (1S29-30); and La Mode (1829-30), Girardin's 
organ. And, Indeed, you can scarcely take up a periodical of the time without 
coming across lithographs contributed more or less irregularly. Most of them 
lived a few years only ; many were as insignificant as the reputation they left 
behind them. They but prepared the way for the great papers and periodicals 
which depended for success primarily upon their lithographs, publishing the 
most famous prints of the time, living, with one exception, for many years : 
La Caricature and Le Charivari managed by Philipon, a genius among 
journalists ; and L' Artiste, edited by Ricourt, the friend of Delacroix. 

U Artiste was founded in 1831 as the organ of the Romanticists. In the 
early years each number contained an original lithograph drawn by a dis- 
tinguished artist. Delacroix, Diaz, Barye, Dupre contributed from time to 
time. Some of their prints were considered too Impressionistic, and the editor 
had to promise "more finished work," though he expressed his preference 
for that of the artists he had published. Other contributors were Celestin 
Nanteull (his most famous lithograph, the Rue de la Vieille Lanterne, 
appeared in L' Artiste), Raffet, Lami, Fragonard, Almee de Lemud, whose 
Jllaitrc IVulframb enjoyed perhaps a greater success than any other single 
print ever Issued ; Decamps, with his studies of the Chase and of the East ; 
GIgoux ; Charlet in his maturity; Gavarni in his youth; Paul Huet; Tony and 
Alfred Johannot, then at the zenith of their almost Incomprehensible popu- 
larity ; Achllle and Eugene Deveria, declared the Fathers of Romanticism, 
which, like Illustration, has had so many fathers. 

Among them Achille Deveria was one of the most brilliant as well as 
one of the most industrious. He illustrated the stories of the Romanticists, 
he composed romantic incidents for himself, and he was most interesting in his 
portraits. They are a wonderful series. Those of Dumas pere, David, the 
sculptor, Lamartine, Victor Hugo, Chateaubriand, and, more than all others, 

70 




Gavarxi : Thomas Vireloque. 



THE GREAT PERIOD IN FRANCE 

Lemercier, the founder of the Hthographic house of the name, will live lont^ 
after his more elaborate designs are forgotten. And his portraits of women 
— even his fashion plates — have an irresistible charm. If Velasquez dis- 
covered beauty in the stiff, outrageous dress of the Spanish Infanta, Deveria 
invented it in the leg-of-mutton sleeve, the poke bonnet, the heelless shoe 
of 1S30. But portraits were among the triumphs of French lithography. 
Grevedon, in original work, or in copies of Lawrence and Winterhalter, has 
left a beautiful collection, almost too perfect in their prettiness perhaps, but 
never without style and distinction, their charm often enhanced by colour. 
Deroy would be remembered as a portraitist, if only for his delightful Bau- 
delaire, elegant and picturesque, and Gigoux if only for his excellent Alfred 
and Tony Johannot, that served later as a suggestion for Gavarni's Edmond 
and Jules de Goncourt and endless other imitators to the present. And 
Gigoux, like Deveria, understood the elegance and delicious absurdity of the 
costume of 1830. 

Philipon, who began life as a lithographer but developed such a talent 
for journalism that he gave up art for editing, started La Caricature in 1830. 
It was a weekly, illustrated by lithographs. Two were published in each 
number, and there were four small pages of text. The political caricatures 
gave the paper its interest but not financial success, for they led to constant 
police supervision — twenty-two seizures was the record for one year, and 
Philipon, to pay expenses, published in connection with it La LithograpJiie 
Meiisuelle, in which several of the greatest lithographs by Decamps or 
Daumier were printed. La Caricatiire made so formidable a name for itself 
as a political power, that it was suppressed altogether in 1835. In 1832 
Philipon commenced Le Charivari, a daily containing one lithograph and 
three pages of text. With certain changes it is still in existence. Decamps 
drew for it Le Pieii Monarque and L'An de Grace 1840 du Rcgiie Glorieux 
de Charles X, revealing at once his force as draughtsman and satirist. 
Raffet's only caricatures are to be found in Le Charivari. But among the 
crowd of contributors, mostly forgotten, the men who made the reputation of 
the paper were Gavarni and Daumier. 

Gavarni's work is many sided. One is struck with his imagination, his 
energy, his craftsmanship, his technical audacity. His productiveness was 
inexhaustible. He issued collections of prints for himself. He contributed 
series to almost every periodical of the day, down to the Comte de Villedreil's 
Paris, to which, during the year of its existence, 1852, he was ready to send 
his daily lithograph. He seized his characters, his people, dans le vrai, Balzac 
wrote of him. As with Charles Keene, the life he knew was his delight, and 
his desire was to render the men and women about town, the people he saw 
at balls, students, the bourgeois, the enfa)it terrible, tramps, beggars — all the 
amusing Paris types. In this phase he became more and more satirical and 

1Z D* 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

morose until his satire culminated in Thomas Vircloque, one of the most 
powerful lithographs ever drawn. And as his cynicism took stronger hold 
upon him, his methods broadened. He gave up the tight manner of 
L' Artiste, he worked no longer in silvery greys, in flat tones ; he put in his 
figures in a bold mass ; his line acquired nervousness and freedom ; his colour 
became varied, brilliant, intense. He combined the old methods and invented 
new ones. Timidity and hesitation were gone ; all means were legitimate that 
gave him what he wanted. With time, in his estimation, the legend beneath 
the drawing increased in importance, and upon it his ingenuity was expended. 
But for us, the lithograph is, and ever will be, the thing ; whether because of 
the sinister beauty of colour he could give, as in the grim Vireloqtie ; or for 
the quality he could get, probably from the graining of the stone, as in the 
portrait of Isabey ; or for the vivacity and vigour of his line, as in so many 
of his beggars and children, his students and artists. There may be a 
complete catalogue of his prints, but a complete list of even the albums, 
containing twenty or thirty each, would fill pages and surprise those who do 
not know them by their endless variety. 

Daumier was as prolific, as accomplished, as varied as Gavarni, and, 
perhaps, more romantic, more dramatic in conception and execution. After 
a few insignificant prints for Beliard the printer and in the Silhojiette for 
Ricourt, after a preliminary feeling of his way and one short excursion into 
the past of Napoleonic Legend, Daumier took his place as master among 
the lithographers of La Caricature and Le Charivari, and found the subjects 
he was never to exhaust in the life, political or social, of the day. Because 
Philipon invented his jokes it has been said of him, as of Charles Keene, 
that he was without imagination. But it is a small matter where he found 
his jest when he could see for himself the people of Paris — as Charles 
Keene, in his way, saw the people of London. There was an intensity in 
the realism of Daumier that made of his bourgeois something fantastic, 
something romantic. His political caricatures that appeared in rapid succes- 
sion in La Caricatiire were strong enough to send him for six months to 
the prison of Sainte Pdlagie, and there is reason to be grateful, for one of 
his most beautiful lithographs is a record of some of the people who were 
there too : a remarkable group of three — remarkable for quality, for character 
in the three heads. In Le Charivari, with the type on the other side of the 
page showing through, it necessarily loses something in strength and quality. 
Most of the lithographs contributed to La Caricature and Lc Charivari by 
Daumier and Gavarni — two artists who were never troubled by the modern 
fear of over-production, a fear fostered mainly by dealers — now exist only as 
prints. They were so sure in their methods that often, probably, they never 
saw a proof, the drawings being made directly either on stone or on zinc or 
metal plates — it is impossible to tell which — and then etched and put at once 

74 



LE PUBLIC 



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1^ X 




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•■'^»ir 



.■'JivitnotWaUriuCi! -',■,! 



wvUi-'Li-^i-^ 



morose un: 
[ lowerful i ■ 
upon h' 
//.-/'-'■ 

becamr 

new ones, in; 
gave him v 
the drav ' 

Km: I-,,, 



nose 
hold 
■ of 

lis 

ir 



HY AND i 

;nated in Tk. 

And as ii 
;itu. He g'iiv. 
■1 silvery greys, .. 
jiiired nervousness 

inbined the old w 
gone ; all means 

estimation, U.c icgend ', 

it his ingenuity was expeiu.'.u 

;(•. ;;.-,i . whether because of 

n V'reloque ; or for 

:ie, as in the 

many 



ts 



H. Daumier : Le Public du Salon— Artistes en train u'examiner le tableau d'un rival. 



,..;. , , . .p of thrpp' - 

■ k. In Le Charivari 
trough, it necessarily if 
Most ')! the lithographs contributed to 
Daunti'. r and Gavarni — two artists who 
fear of ovcr-prodiKtion, a fear fostered 
prints. They were so sure in their \w\. = 
saw a proof, the drawings being made ■ 
■iK-tal plates — it is impossible to tell wiii 

74 



mauci 
ie of I'a ; 
1-'^ was ai 
something 

red in rapid succes- 
;id him for six months to 
on to be 



:ri by 



- .... er 
fi zinc or 
■ at once 



LE PUBLIC DU SALON 







XC)^ 



i^ 



m. 






r ^ 



1 




. s litn itii;'- J'.; r 'iwitaue W tilt i su Cn' -j' i nmtt . !»r.5 . 



C»vii its iiiitiJ--', •■■■'> 



U'iUl(,i.i.ll liiil-L 11 .'..1.1 



THE GREAT PERIOD IN FRANCE 

on the press ; owing to the hurry of the printers they probably did not work 
on paper. Doubtless, there was frequently no time for a proof, any more 
than there was room for collectors of illustrations from cheap papers. Almost 
all the examples of Daumier to be found to-day are in the pages of these 
papers, with the type on the back. 

Some of Daumier's other famous prints were done in his early years: Le 
Ventre Lc'gislalif, a decorative arrangement of vain and foolish and senile 
and pompous statesmen ; the Rice Transnonain, the tragedy to which any 
explanatory legend would seem an impertinence, where you see vaguely 
taking shape from out the shadows the figure of a woman, learned in fore- 
shortening, and in the other corner an old man's head, and in the centre, the 
light concentrated upon it, the grisly, terrible body of the third victim, crushing 
the child whose blood flows with his upon the floor. This is Daumier's 
masterpiece, and both prints appeared in La Lithographie Mensuelle. But 
there followed in Lc Charivari one series after another ; five thousand prints 
he is said to have made, and now collectors are searching garrets and waste- 
paper warehouses for as many of them as can be traced. If in this vast 
number he stooped sometimes to ordinary dodges and devices, if he had a 
deplorable fancy for the old trick of putting big heads on little bodies, for 
big noses and distorted faces and deformed figures, if he repeated himself, 
think, on the other hand, of the incredible number of good things in his 
Mceiirs Conjitga/es, his Gens de Justice, his Bons Bourgeois, his Bas B/eiis, 
his Divorceiises, his Baigneuses, his Philanthropes, his classical parodies, his 
Robert Macaire — the immortal Macaire who held such sway that when 
Thackeray, posing as art critic, undertook to write the history of lithography 
in Paris, he could write only of Macaire. And how well you see the fun 
Daumier had out of them all ! His technique has an exuberance, an ardour, a 
fire, a recklessness based upon knowledge. And almost as great a wonder is 
that his beautiful colour, his delicate tones, could survive the printing of a 
daily paper. But it is a further proof of how much better was newspaper 
printing seventy years ago than it is to-day. 

Daumier lived to make lithographs of the Franco-German War ; Gavarni 
died in 1866. But long before, the great days of the art were over. 
M. Beraldi dates the decline from 1840, when complaints were heard that 
n Artiste, which had done so much for lithography, was beginning to abandon 
it. Already, in 1834, the year when a petition was presented to Louis 
Philippe urging the State to undertake work for the encouragement of steel 
engraving killed by lithography (the year when praise was lavished on the 
immense improvement in lithographic printing, due largely to Motte), there 
were whispers that lithography was in danger of being vulgarized by popu- 
larity. In 1836 notices of the lithographs in the Salon regret signs of a 
decline. The art, disdained in England, the critics said, was abused in 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

France by the publishers of cheap work, and a public that could not under- 
stand anything but inartistic primness of finish. All sorts of other reasons 
were found — the commercial conditions after 1830, the growth of a new 
school of colourists, the mechanical devices introduced. The fact is that 
cheapness was as deadly an enemy to lithography as it has since been to 
wood-engraving and process. In L' Artiste, about this date, you begin to read 
of the ruin threatened to art by commercialism, by the cheap work with 
which the lesser lithographic firms were flooding the country. Its editors 
were also probably disgusted with provincial imitations, like H Art en 
Province, a monthly founded at Moulins in 1835, and run on much the same 
lines, with a forced element of picturesqueness in imitation of Baron Taylor. 
But it would be useless and hopeless to consider all the minor periodicals, 
books, and collections. It is sufficient to say that L' Artiste, at one time the 
most brilliant champion of lithography, began towards 1S40 to substitute 
etchings and engravings for lithographs. Gradually, artists were warned that 
if they would save their beautiful art from disaster they should devote it to 
serious ends, and Germany was upheld as an example of the direction this 
seriousness should take. The task of the lithographer should be the copying 
of pictures. And besides, the mechanical methods of reproduction, Gillotage, 
as process was first called, and photo- lithography, which meant greater 
cheapness and certainty for the illustrated papers and the magazines, helped 
to deflect artistic lithography into new channels. There only remained the 
French reproductive lithographers, who remain still. 

Not that original work came entirely to an end. The beautiful litho- 
graphs by Diaz were not printed in L' Artiste until 1849. Corot, Millet, 
Courbet, Jacque (to whom transfer paper was of good service), made a few 
lithographs, which reveal little appreciation of lithographic quality but are like 
their drawings in other mediums. The fact that these prints are like the 
artists' drawings, that each has an individuality and character, is just what 
constitutes their merit. A few artists by means of lithography were begin- 
ning to find a freedom of expression unknown in any other form by which 
their drawings could be multiplied, though the bulk of the lithographers were 
trying to make things that looked like lithographs and were slaves of the 
chalk and the stone. Then there were the fine landscapes of Adolphe 
Hervier, whose two most important albums, Pay sages et Marines and 
Baraques, were published by Lebrasseur in 1S52. Charles Bargue was at 
work, a lithographer of individuality, and Chasseriau, the disciple of 
Delacroix, while Gustave Dore spared time from his innumerable designs for 
the wood-engraver to make many lithographs. Dore was as indifferent to 
lithographic quality as the painters, and therefore got his own character, or 
mannerism, into his work, and Bargue and Chasseriau may be ranked with 
the copyists, among whom activity was greatest from 1S40 onwards. 

78 




H. Daumier : A Sainte Pelagie. 



THE GREAT PERIOD IN FRANCE 

There had been a good deal of reproductive work before this, but it had 
never in France ranked with original creative design, it had never assumed 
the importance of similar reproduction in Germany. But reproduction finally 
swallowed up French lithography. Aubry-Lecomte had been the leader of the 
French school of reproductive men developed between 1820 and 1840. There 
were publishers eager for their prints, and publications undertaken for their 
benefit, even galleries in the German style. The Galerie de la Duchesse de 
Bcrrv was brought out by Didot in 1S22, and later on Alotte produced the 
Ga/erie Lithographide de Son Altesse Royale, Monseigneur le Due d Orleans — 
not very notable either of them. Aubert, the publisher of Le Chai'ivari and 
La Carieature, began in 1834 the Revue des Peintres, a monthly, with, for 
object, the reproduction of the paintings and drawings that were the success of 
the current exhibitions and private galleries. U Artiste gave reproductions 
of pictures shown or refused at the Salon. La Carieature and Le Chai'ivari, 
and provincial publications like L'Art en Province, began to reproduce them. 
Then there were catalogues and albums: Le Salon de 1839, Album du Salon 
for 1840, 1841, 1842, issued by Beauger and Challamel, in which the prints, 
accompanied by critical and descriptive te.xt, were, as a rule, poor perform- 
ances, though some of the best known reproductive lithographers contributed : 
Mouilleron, Leon Noel, Alophe, Francais, Celestin Nanteuil, Ciceri, Jollivet, 
Dauzats. It comes as a surprise to see Gavarni among them, copying 
Les Suites de Bal Masque, by Biard. Several were destined to carry the 
work to perfection. When exhibitions were given in provincial towns it was 
usual to commission Aubry-Lecomte, Gigou.x, Leon Noel, or other artists to 
reproduce on large stones the principal pictures of the year. Books with 
lithographs after paintings and drawings appeared about the same date. 
Challamel, the printer, issued his Vie de Jdsus Christ, by Bossuet, illustrated 
by his own lithographed copies of Fragonard's drawings after the Old 
Masters ; and his Vie de la Sainte Viergc, for which again Fragonard was 
the draughtsman, and Mouilleron the lithographer. 

IMouilleron was one of the most distinguished of the copyists. He 
reproduced Delacroix to the painter's satisfaction. He worked for German 
and English publishers and editors. One of his principal works was his 
reproduction of Rembrandt's Night Wateh, considered a triumph at the time. 
Sirouy and Le Roux and Sudre also reproduced Delacroix and many moderns. 
Ingres was so delighted with the work of Sirouy, who put the Odalisqtie on 
stone, that he declared the picture would never have been heard of afterwards 
but for the lithograph. Celestin Nanteuil's copies were so well appreciated, 
that he was invited to Madrid in 1854 to copy the Prado pictures, as Jollivet 
and Blanchard had been years before. Then, there were the landscape men, 
Emile \'ernier and Francais, who interpreted on stone the pictures of the 
Barbizon painters, and did it uncommonly well, lithography being the repro- 

81 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

ductive method which can best suggest the exquisiteness of Corot, the mystery 
of Millet, the luminous atmosphere of Troyon. There were many others only 
less accomplished — Emile Lassalle, Hue, Marin-Lavigne, J. Laurens, 
Soulange-Tessier, Jacott, Chauvel, Achille Gilbert. Their work has more 
sympathy and spontaneity, less dryness and cold formality, than that of the 
German reproductive men — always excepting Hanfstangl. Representative 
collections are the Artistes Anciens et Modernes and the Artistes Contem- 
porains, published during several years, in which all the best reproductive 
work, as well as original designs, like the Vireloque, appeared. 

But nothing could save lithography from the fate that by the fifties was 
threatening to overtake it. Less and less used for illustration, less and less 
practised by painters, lithography was more and more disdained by the 
public. By iS6o and iS6i it seemed so essentially an art of the past that 
the collector was willing to give large prices for certain early prints. In the 
Salon, lithographs were treated with contempt, and hidden in out-of-the-way 
corners. Men like Gavarni and Daumier and Raffet saw no use in exhibiting;-. 
And things had come to such a pass that in 1864 Burty found lithography 
en pleine d(fcadeiice. Not only did the reproductive lithographers and copyists, 
brilliant technically as many of them were, nearly succeed in suppressing 
original work in lithography, but they seized the Salon, excluded almost all 
original work, and awarded most of the medals to themselves, as they do 
even until to-day. They have formed societies and issued albums and 
portfolios for their own profit and glorification. And had they only been a 
little stronger they would have killed the art completely. But then they 
would have killed themselves, and that is by no means their intention. 
\n French official art now there is scarcely such a thing as an artistic 
lithograph recognized. 

The art has not perished, even in France, but for a while it suffered 
the same neglect that wood-eno-ravinsf, etching, and steel engraving- each in 
its turn has experienced. 



82 




< 



< 



< 

Q 



EARLY ENGLISH 




Thomas Stothard. 
From Specimens of Polyautography. 



EARLY ENGLISH 



CHAPTER IV 

IT is curious that for several years in England, the country to which 
Senefelder came to take out his patents, and to whose artists he 
looked to develop the art he had invented, hardly any litho- 
graphs were made, save a few prints by French refugees living in 
London, and two albums of examples of " Polyautography," the original 
English name for lithography. The term Polyautography, Wagner says, was 
invented by F. Johanndt, of Offenbach. In France and Germany the art was 
universally practised, and the subject of interest to artists and scientists before 
attention was paid to it publicly in England. Then, it was because a print- 
seller named Ackermann and a lithographer named Hullmandel, in 1819, 
wished to issue an English translation of Senefelder's Complete Course of 
Lithography, and brought the book to the notice of the Society of Arts. 
Having had it translated by Schlichtegroll, they had to publish and sell it, 
and they saw an advertisement in the awarding of the Society's gold medal 
to Senefelder, who was so little known that a long correspondence was 
necessary to e.xplain who he was and what he had accomplished in the art, 
of which the Society had never heard, which was never mentioned until 
1818 in their published records, though for twenty years it had been the 
subject of inquiry in similar societies in France and Germany. When litho- 
graphy was referred to in other English publications, Senefelder was apt to 
be ignored, and, in more than one article, credit was given to Philip Andre. 

But in 1 80 1, the vear after Senefelder came to London, the Annual 
Register for June 20th contains the following entry : " To J. Aloysius Senefelder, 
of Gould Square, London, gent. ; for a new method and process of performing 
the various branches of the art of printing on paper, linen, cotton, woollen, 
and other articles," and in the Abridgement of Patents, Printing (Part I, 
page 28), it is stated that the art was discovered by Senefelder in 1800. 
The date is wrong, but paper is spoken of as well as stone, and transferring 
is explained. The word "lithography," however, never occurs, one of 
Senefelder's (or probably Andre's) objects being to keep the art a secret, 
while his reason for comins: was not the encouragement of art, but the 
printing of calico by lithography, which proves him to have been intelligent 
in adapting his aims to the requirement of the nation he visited. 

On April 30, 1803, a volume containing twelve prints was issued by 
His Majesty's Royal Letters Patent, entitled Specimens of Polyautography, 

89 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

Consistwg of Impressions taken from Original Draivings made pui'posely for 
this Work. London: Piiblished the 2,0th of Apr i/, 1803, by P. Andrd, Patentee, 
No. 5, Buckingham Street, Fitzroy Square, a7id J. Heath, 1 5, Russe/l Place, 
Fitzroy Square. The prints are by Stothard, Warwick, Delamotte, 
R. Corbould, R. Cooper, Hearne, Fuseli, Barry, Sir R. K. Porter, Earlier, 
and Benjamin West. They were reprinted in 1S06 by G. J. Vollweiler under 
the title, Specimens of Poly autography, Consisting of Impressio7is taken from 
Original Draivings, Made on Stone, purposely for this Work. Printed by 
G. J. Vollweiler, Patentee, Successor to M. Andre', 1S06. Vollweiler 
appealed to "Amateurs who wish to draw on stone and have impressions 
taken from it," sending out a circular with his terms for lending stones, ink, 
and chalk, and delivering prints. But few original designs from his press 
survive, except sketches by P. E. Stroehling, of classical subjects, rather freely 
printed on brown paper. Another portfolio evidently was published by 
Vollweiler, for it is referred to in an article in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for 1 80S. The South Kensington Museum possesses a portfolio, not, however, 
in its original cover, to which some one has affixed the title : PolyaiUographic 
Society, Examples of forty Original Drawings. The twelve drawings of 
Andre's portfolio reappear in this collection. One of the new prints is 
ascribed to Turner, but it certainly is not his ; it is a commonplace perform- 
ance, nothing like the work of Turner, who is not known ever to have 
made a lithograph, and it is signed " G. Walker, amateur." There are, 
besides, two chalk drawings, one by Fuseli, not included in the original 
collection, and a number by Heath. The dates range from 1802 to 18 16. 
Several bear at the foot the inscription : London, Printed from a Pen and 
Ink Drawing on Stone at the Polyautographic Office, No. 9, Btickitigham 
Place, Fitzroy Sqiiare. Three drawings of boats by Cornelius Varley in this 
portfolio are dated 1 809 ; they may have been three of the four prints he 
afterwards gave to the Society of Arts; and as others are as late as 18 16, 
one begins to wonder whether the collection at South Kensington has not 
had prints of later date added, while there is no evidence that there ever was 
a Polyautographic Society, or that it published an album. 

In addition to these portfolios. South Kensington possesses a curious 
volume, partly printed by Vollweiler in 1 809 : A Series of Antient Allegorical, 
Historical, and Legendary Paintings, which were discovered in . . . 1804, on 
the wa,lls of the Chapel of the Trinity at Stratford-upon-Avon, in Warwick 
shire, also Vieius and Sections illustrative of the Ajxhitecture of the Chapel. 
London, 1807. T. Fisher, Hoxton, not only is one of the several 
publishers, but, according to the inscription underneath the designs, drew 
and etched them. Thirty-one plates, chiefly copies of seals and MSS., are 
metal engravings, fifteen others are lithographs of paintings, and the advertise- 
ment explains that they were " Printed from Stone at the Polyautographic 

90 




William Bi.ake. 
From Polyautographic Collection. 



EARLY ENGLISH 

Press of Mr. Voluieler [?], and the Plates immediately destroyed, on which 
account the number of Copies it will be ultimately practicable to complete 
cannot exceed 120, of these twenty only are on large paper." The limited 
number is no doubt due to the uncertainties that still attended the new 
method of printing. The drawings are coloured by hand and, as they are 
etched on stone, have little of the quality of lithographs. 

The prints of the first polyautographic albums, and many as rare 
belonging to the same period, are preserved in a Polyautographic Collection 
in the Print Room at the British Museum. A large head and a portrait 
group in chalk by J. G. P. Fischer have the interest of rarity. There is an 
early, undated, scraped drawing of a woman threading a needle by candle- 
light, which is fine, by D. Redman. Charles Heath, the engraver, exhibited 
at Somerset House, as early as 1804, a Venus, or Flora, and Cupids, for 
there is a note on the margin of the print in the Museum to that effect. 
He made many experiments in engraving on stone. Gillray is responsible for 
a drawing called " A Musical Family," in the same year ; and there is one 
drawing by Blake — a great, godlike, seated figure, at whose feet Art, Letters, 
and Music are grouped, in feeling not unlike one of the designs for the Book 
of Job. It is no surprise to find Blake making a lithograph as, with all his 
poetry and mysticism, which alone has been paid any attention to, he was a 
most brilliant engraver, a fact which has been lost sight of, and an experi- 
menter in all forms of graphic art. It is highly probable that he met 
Senefelder, though there is no record of it. Another of the few English 
artist-engravers who carried on tradition is Thomas Bewick, and he says in 
his Memoir that he made in 1S23, at Ballantyne and Robinson's, Edinburgh, 
a lithograph, a sketch on stone, drawing the " sketch before breakfast and the 
proofs were taken from it the same day. ... In doing this, though very 
slight, I could see what that manner of making prints was capable of." The 
drawing, however, is of small importance. Almost all the prints in these early 
albums and experiments were engraved on stone or drawn in pen and ink.' 

D. Redman, who had been employed as printer by Andre or Vollweiler, 
a litde later opened a shop for himself, at 15, Bishop's Walk, Lambeth. He 
was employed at the Quartermaster-General's Office, where he was the 
official printer from stone of maps and plans, and from 26, Queen Square, in 
November, 18 15, "he offers his rates for stones and printing, and will wait 
on Ladies and Gentlemen early in the morning or evening, and he hopes to 
meet the approbation of the British Public," for a few amateurs played with 
lithography in England as many did in France, and the results are in the 
polyautographic portfolios. Some of the prints are signed by the Due 
de Montpensier, the Duchess of Montrose, Lord Cawdor, Sir Robert K. 

' West's and Fuseli's lithographs of 1803 are ahnost the only early English ones that 
were done in chalk. 

93 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

Porter, Lady Georgiana North. Then Redman printed " Eight Lithographic 
Impressions" by the "following Gentlemen Artists of Bath." The gentlemen 
are scarcely remembered and the publication is undated. The fashion passed 
quickly, the way of all fashions, and the only amateurs of title or notoriety 
who later practised the art in England were Queen Victoria, who is 
credited with some trivial essays as she is in etching, and the Count D'Orsay, 
who, in 1839 and 1840, drew portraits of Carlyle, Chesterfield, Sheridan 
Knowles, and Theodore Hook, which are not altogether bad. In fact, with 
the slight tint that has been added they are "pretty." 

The first lithograph used as a book illustration in England, so far as 
there is record, is in J. T. Smith's Antiquities of Westminster, 1807, p. 49. The 
drawing, made with a pen, is described as " Interior of the Painted Chatnber 
on Stone." It is followed, after a page or two, by an etching on copper of 
the same subject. Lithography was then such a novelty that it was thought 
necessary by the author to explain the new method of printing. So little 
was the art understood, that when three hundred impressions had been taken 
the drawing was ruined, and the author states that it will not appear in the 
rest of the edition. 

The first English manual on the subject is Lithography, or the Art of 
Making Drawings on Stone for the Purpose of being Mu/tip/ied by Printing 
(H. Bankes, London, 181 3), entered in the catalogue at South Kensington 
but not in the Library. At the British Museum there is a manual with the 
title : Lithography, or the Art of Taking Impressions froJit Di^axvings or 
Writings made on Stone, 18 16, which may be a later edition. It is an 
account of the invention, adapted probably either from Strohofer's book or 
some official German or French report. The author praises transfer paper, 
as the " draughtsman may take his prepared paper to the country, make his 
sketches, and at leisure transfer them to the stone." For the rest, he 
modestly claims the invention of the word " lithography," he denies Senefelder, 
defies Andre, and appropriates the art to himself In 18 18 Charles Hullmandel 
published his Twenty-four Vieivs of Italy, Draivn from N attire and Engraved 
upon Stone: commonplace drawings, badly printed by Moser and Harris in 
Somers Town. 18 18 was also notable as the year of the Society of Arts' first 
offer of a premium " for the best specimen in the art executed on stone, the 
produce of the United Kingdom or its Colonies. 

"The Gold Isis Medal. 

" A particular account of the process employed, and the name of the 
quarry whence the stone was taken, six impressions of the drawings to be 
produced to the Society." 

It was probably to compete for this prize that Cornelius Varley submitted 
his four lithographs, unfortunately not preserved by the Society, and that the 
drawings were made for the new portfolio of Specimens of Lithogi'aphy, 

94 



EARLY ENGLISH 

printed and published by Francis Moser, on March 21, 1S19. The name 
" Polyautography " disappeared with Andre and Volhveiler and Redman, 
though by no means a bad name for the art. In his "Advertisement" to 
the portfoHo Moser says that his object is the improvement of Hthography 
in England, where the art, " brought to a state of great excellence both in 
Germany and France," has been neglected. He says that though "many 
of the first Artists of the Kingdom " had already practised it when Andre 
came to England, in 1803 — the date is a mistake — they were discouraged 
because the impressions obtained were few in number and not good, and the 
art was abandoned to amateurs. What was needed was not only the atten- 
tion of o^ood artists, but "a Printer well acquainted with the niceties of the 
business " — in other words, Mr. Moser himself. Moser's printing was scarcely 
less primitive than his predecessors', but he understood and insisted upon the 
great advantage of lithography. "Engraving," he wrote, "must from its nature 
be a copy ; lithography not only saves the expense of the engraving, but it 
multiplies the original itself." Most of the lithographs are done In ink, two 
are printed with a yellow tint, and the "Advertisement" is, as a note 
explains, transferred. The drawings with a tint are by Hullmandel, who did 
the most accomplished work. Others are by R. Corbould, H. Corbould, 
E. Blare, and G. Scharf. Hullmandel's and Scharf's drawings, technically, are 
the best. 

In 18 19 R. Ackermann, a printseller, began to publish lithographs, and 
also to defend Senefelder, and in the minutes of the Society of Arts, The 
Committee of Polite Arts, April 6, 18 19, is the following : — 

"A Communication from Mr. Ackermann was read, stating that Mr. 
Aloys Senefelder was the inventor of the Art of Lithography, and that he 
trusted the Society, whose zeal in promoting the advancement of the Arts 
had ever been most conspicuous, would bestow their reward on Lithographic 
Excellence : That Mr. Senefelder's efforts had been unremitting in bringing 
the art to that state of perfection which his publication on the subject would 
evince, and that his distinguished character for Science would be best appre- 
ciated in the contemplation of his works. That he requested the Society 
would accept a copy entitled A Complete Course of Lithography, etc., written 
by Alois Senefelder. 

" Examined a variety of specimens. 

" Mr. Ackermann produced a small Press, exhibiting the manner in which 
the printing was executed, and explaining the process of preparing the 
impression to be taken ; a complete description of which will be found in 
Mr. Senefelder's publication. 

" Mr. Ackermann stated that the Press was Invented and made by Mr. 
Senefelder. That it was sent from Germany to him by Mr. Senefelder, and 
further added, that previous to an Impression being taken, the stone on 

97 E 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

which the engraving was made was rubbed over with water, and the roller 

then passed over it. 

" Mr. Accum (?), in adverting to the advantages of the art, observed on 

the multiplication of copies, and the facility in producing identical facsituilcs. 

He stated that he had read Mr. Senefelder's work, and had applied his 

experiments with success; that the Inks he recommended were all effective 

and that no person who possessed the book could be at a loss to execute 

the different styles of drawing. 

" Mr. Heaphy stated that he, Mr. Ackermann, and Mr. Gandell, had 

been practising the art for three years, and had failed in a variety of 

attempts before they had obtained Mr. Senefelder's book; that since then 

their progress in the art had been much assisted. Mr. H. observed that Mr. 

Senefelder had recommended the use of arease as the essential ineredient in 

the cravons for drawinsf on the stone. 

"Resolved to recommend to the Society to present their Gold Medal as 

a Bounty to Aloys Senefelder for having freely communicated to the public 

the most perfect and complete account of the whole process of Lithography, 

of which he is the inventor. 

" This Report was read and agreed to at the Meeting of the Society, 

April 7th, 1819." 

The gold medal seems to have been sent to Senefelder, as his wife 
wrote in 1S21 that he not only gave away all the money that came to 
him, but that he had pawned the three gold medals given him by the 
Munich Royal Academy, the Duke of Leuchtenberg, and the Society of Arts. 
Senefelder conveyed through Ackermann his thanks to the Society of Arts 
and sent them a printing press, "a curious and most useful machine," which 
never seemed of service to the Society. This also has disappeared. Acker- 
mann ends his letter, dated May 5, 1S19, by stating that he is glad he 
" was in some measure the instrument by which the Society were induced to 
become the patrons of his (.Senefelder's) invention." The publishers had 
a good advertisement for Senefelder's book, which, somehow, appeared at the 
same moment. 

The Preface to the Transactions of the Society for 1S19 gives further 
evidence ot the now fairly aroused interest in lithography and recognition of 
Senefelder. It is there stated, with a delightfully frank contradiction, that 
"it will be found from the communication from Mr. Hullmandel and Mr. 
Redman that the Society has not neglected the recent art of lithography " — 
though it had ignored it for eighteen years — "by which identical copies of 
writing and drawing may be obtained, so as in certain cases to supersede the 
employment of the printing press and the graver." Hullmandel, in the course 
of the year, had read a paper and shown specimens on German stone " of 
the art invented some years ago in Germany, though but lately introduced ia 

98 




< 



EARLY ENGLISH 

this country, at least in its present state of perfection"; and he had also 
presented the Tivcnty-four Ficzus of Italy. Hullmandel had learned all he 
could directly from Senefelder, with whom he was in constant communication. 
He imported presses and stones — Dibdin says fifteen hundred stones. In the 
same year Hullmandel was awarded a silver medal for a lithographic drawing 
on German stone, and " D. Redman for ditto on English stone the Silver 
Isis Medal." As a result of this competition Hullmandel in a paper or letter 
of thanks rightly praised the German stone, but when he went on to a 
description of drawing on stone he took every word from Senefelder's book, 
whose name he never mentioned. Nor in the two textbooks he published 
later did he refer to Senefelder, though he owed everything to Senefelder, 
whom he tried to get rid of. Redman, however, frankly contradicts his 
statements, and says he found English stone quite as good as the 
German. And Ackermann ended the correspondence by the quotation 
given above. 

For many years the Society offered prizes, but the search for English 
stone was not persevered in. In 1822 a silver medal, or 20 guineas, was 
offered " for the best method of transferring drawings from paper to stone 
for the purpose of lithography superior to any in use." And in 1829 (vol. .xlii, 
p. 47), it is stated that lithographic drawings " were originally made on 
paper covered with a coat of size. Many advantages attended this original 
method as compared with that which has now nearly superseded it, namely, 
making the drawing on the stone itself." The report complains of the weight 
of the stones and praises the lightness and portability of the paper, on which 
the drawing is made in a " natural position." And the Society, " considering 
it to be a great point gained to so improve the ink and paper, and gener- 
ally the whole method of making lithographic transfers, as to render it 
applicable to most of the purposes for which drawing on the stone is now 
had recourse to," for improvement in this direction awarded prizes to 
J. Nethercliff; and after that lithography was paid litde attention to by the 
Society of Arts until its 56th volume, in which there is a paper by S. 
Williams most appropriately quoted here. The writer advanced as a reason 
for the indifference to the art in England, where, he says, it was regarded 
as an inferior kind of engraving, the fact that, while the Continental artists 
drew with a point, Britons were trained to draw with a brush ; and he pointed 
out that the earliest lithographers in the country, that is, the first who did 
more than experiment, were foreigners : Carbonnier, Guaci, Scharf, A. Aglio. 
The first Englishman, according to him, was W. Nicholson, who, however, 
did not present his proofs to the Society of Arts until 1S21. Taking a hint 
from Mitterer in jNIunich, Moser, Rowney and Foster, as well as Hullmandel, 
printed drawing-books with the designs of Scharf, S. Harley, H. Walter, 
Dennis Dighton — the first of a long series by various artists. The Society also 

lOI 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

issued, 1848, in connection witli an Art Union, a lithograph of Linnell after 
Mulready's Sonnet, one of the most perfect examples of the art produced in the 
country. In 1S20 were published J. J. Chalons Parisian Cafe's in colour, in some 
ways almost as good as Lami's work ; J. Fudge's studies of architecture, some 
of the first English lithographs to show strength and richness ; and the Art 
of Design of the English, mainly drawings by H. Corbould, brought out by 
Rowney and Foster. To the fear that lithography was only a cheap substi- 
tute for engraving, which is often stated, was added fraud. Carl Vernet's 
drawings, published in Paris, were stolen apparently in London by E. Pursell, 
and doubtless much of this sort of thing happened. 

It was not until 1822 that the first important work illustrated by litho- 
graphy was commenced : Britanjiia De/ineata, a ponderous folio, dedicated to 
George IV, and illustrated by Hullmandel, Westall, Prout, and Harding, who, 
appearing for the first time, surpasses in freedom the older men. Prout had 
already done much work, nothing more notable than his drawing on paper 
for Senefelder's book, which is valuable evidence as to the contemporary use 
of transfer paper. Only one part — the County of Kent — of the Britannia 
De/ineata appeared. But, indeed, save in the case of Harding, Prout, 
Haghe, and Owen Jones, scarcely any of the great works projected in litho- 
graphy were carried out on the scale originally planned. 

In 1S24 Hullmandel issued a catalogue of works he had printed for 
Ackermann, which included Prout's Rhine, four parts. Foreign Vieivs, and 
Drawing Books, as well as separate drawings by Ward, Westall, Carbonnier, 
Lane, and a copy of a View of Leeds, drawn by Turner, and put on stone 
by J. D. Harding. Turner, as far as is known, and as has been already 
stated, never made a lithograph. A number of his drawings were copied 
by Harding, Simpson, and others, while important chromo-lithographs, after 
his oil paintings and water colours, were done by Carrick. But there is no 
evidence that he ever worked on paper or stone, nor is it exact to say, as 
Mr. Rawlinson says, that some of these chromo-lithographs published in 1852 
were among the earliest chromo-lithographs published in England, as there 
are chromo-lithographs in Senefelder's book, in which the process of chromo- 
lithography is described. 

Though progress was manifest, Hullmandel, in his JManual of Lithography, 
1820, regretted the contemptuous manner in which the art was treated : " Litho- 
graphy has many enemies, has been cried down most unaccountably by several 
painters of eminence as a degrading art, the means of bringing the works of 
artists into contempt." No less serious drawback was the fact that as soon 
as the German stones were brought into England a heavy duty was laid on 
them, almost prohibitive, while the duty was taken off foreign prints ; and this, 
possibly, was the beginning of English lithography being made in Germany. 
Hullmandel could only hope that "lithography will some day meet in England 

I02 




G. Cattermole : A Death-Blow. 



EARLY ENGLISH 

with that support it deserves and obtains abroad, and that those persons who 
call it a mean art will use a portion of the great and real talent they possess 
towards producing specimens which may at least equal what is now done on 
the Continent. For," he adds, "works of art meet with a degree of encourage- 
ment in France quite unknown in England. Prints of every description tind 
purchasers there among those classes of society which in England view them 
with as much unconcern as they would hieroglyphics, perceiving nothing in 
the finest prints but black lines on white paper." 

English artists never, at any time, shared the enthusiasm of French 
artists, and it was so long before they realized what could be got out of the 
stone and Senefelder's bit of greasy chalk, that the first perfectly successful 
lithographs published in England appear in Lane's Portfolio of Illustrations 
of John Philip Kemble in the Various Parts he has Sustained, issued, through 
Dickinson, as late as October, 1826. There are eight drawings, small, 
finished in the beautiful fashion Lane invented in English lithography. 
Every advantage is taken of the lithographic quality, and for the first time 
delicacy of handling is combined with strength of colour. It is a notable 
volume, though virtually unknown. 

By 1826 Engelmann had started a shop — whether he had a press there 
is uncertain — at 92, Dean Street, Soho, under the name of Engelmann, Graf, 
Coindet & Co., and issued, for one thing, Richard Westall's Poi'tfolio of 
Drawings of Xetlcy Abbey. 

About this time, just as there were so few good wood-engravers in 
France that French publishers had most of the illustrations for their books 
engraved in England, so it seemed that ' Baron Taylor could not find land- 
scape artists in France who could put his sketches on stone for his great 
work. In the first volumes, in fact in the whole series, there are many 
drawings by Prout and Harding and Bonington. Some of the drawings were 
printed in England by Hullmandel, the sketch being probably sent over. 
Thus, in lithography, as in wood-engraving, there was a constant international 
exchange of artistic ideas and work. With education and refinement artists 
and publishers have become more narrow and insular. It was during this 
decade that many of the great French lithographers were at work in England: 
Gericault, Charlet, Lami, Monnier. But they were not much more popular 
than Gavarni was later. An anonymous writer {^Library of the Fine Arts, or 
Repository of Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, and Engraving, London, 
1 83 1, vol. i), considering the state of lithography in England in 1831, says 
that "the French lithographs are pretty well known, and form the most 
graceful trifles of our print shops," but laments that Gericault had no success. 
It is amusing to learn from the same source that then, as now, the prints 
that sold were those that " ministered to the maudlin and vitiated taste of 
the public for affectations of sentiment and prettiness." Other foreigners, 

10; E* 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

German and Italian, had settled here; Scharf had produced his huge Vieius 
of the Approaches to London Bridge, his Portfolio at the Zoo, and his 
Drawing Books. The Guaci family, M., Paul, and William, were known for 
portraits and landscapes, the father, M., having made a notable portrait of 
James Thomson after Hogarth, about 1820. And Engelmann brought over 
as his partner Hanhart, the founder of the firm. 

While the Napoleonic Legend was taking root in France, in England the 
Briton was immortalizing sport, the British god. Aiken, whose work in aqua- 
tint is remembered, did at least one bo.xing bout, and John Doyle, H.B., 
also did sporting subjects, some rather freely, before he produced his tiresome 
volumes of political caricatures. But the delineation of sport in Engl?incl has 
been nearly always the duty of the artless, and is of no interest to any one 
but the people and the animals delineated. The British sporting character 
is mortally offended by the slightest suggestion of art. James Ward's horses 
are delightful exceptions, Thomas Fairland's work in lithography is not to be 
ignored, while it must not be forgotten that Gericault's Boxers and nearly 
all his studies of horses were made in England, where, being artistic, they 
were a failure. 

From 1830 to 1840 comparatively few important English books illustrated 
by lithographs were printed. In 1S32 John Gould commenced the first of 
his numerous volumes — more than forty — on the Birds of the World. The 
drawings, printed by Hullmandel, Walton, Hart, and Walter, were made by 
his wife, Lear, Richter, Hart, and J. Wolf. If this magnificent series had 
the slightest artistic merit it would be the most wonderful collection of 
lithographs in the world. Scientifically, and from a collector's point of view, 
it may be of inestimable value. But artistically it is a bore. The whole of 
these ponderous volumes are not worth the cheapest Japanese Sketch Book, 
and the same is true of the English edition of Audubon's Birds in Amej^ica, 
and other works, for which lithography was and is still used. In 1836, Owen 
Jones began the publication (not completed until 1845) of his great book on 
the Alkauibra, the first work on such lavish scale ever projected in chromo- 
lithography, and still the most monumental publication of the kind. The task 
presented so many difficulties that Owen Jones could not induce the ordinary 
chromo-lithographer to make the venture, and he was obliged to set up his 
own presses, with the aid of Day and Haghe, and train his own draughtsmen 
and printers in rooms taken for the purpose in the Adelphi. No wonder that 
the work, now to be had for ten guineas, was published at one hundred and 
fifty. Most of the designs are flat decorations, plans, elevations, and examples 
of ornament. Their discussion belongs to a history of chromo, not original 
lithography. The Arundel • chromo-Hthographs of a later date may also be 
dismissed, as these prints, so highly prized by the artless, are in almost every 

' The Arundel Society's reproductions. 
106 




John' Liwell, Jux. : The So.nn'ET. 
After Mul ready. 



EARLY ENGLISH 

case but the copies on stone of the professional Hthographer, who probably 
never saw the pictures, of water-colour drawings by the professional copyist 
who knew nothing about chromo-lithography. Being totally devoid of character 
they are the delight of the cultured classes. No one, but the artless and the 
ignorant, could prefer them to the simple black and white lithographs after 
the Masters by Hanfstangl, di Craene, or Alouilleron, and the photograph 
is to be preferred to either. The only merit about such lithographs is that 
they possess no artistic merit whatever. About 1850 many large single prints 
of the Great Exhibition and similar subjects were published. 

The great period of British Lithography was from about 1845 to 1865, 
a period when less was done in France. Unfortunately the volumes issued 
mainly by Graves, Colnaghi, McLean, and Day, are seldom dated, and it is 
therefore impossible to tell when they were issued. The publishers had to 
contend with endless prejudice. To-day, in many cases, it Is the publishers 
who are prejudiced. An instance of the former feeling is in Wilkie's letters 
from Madrid, in 1827, to Sir Thomas Lawrence, urging the purchase of the 
lithographs of the Prado pictures. " If lithography be an objection," no 
other engravings had been made ; it was a choice between the lithographs 
or nothing. The fact is, there never was such a snobbish age in art in 
England. Younger firms advertised that they would not, like the print-sellers 
of the old school, publish a lithographic print. Wilkie, Mulready, and the 
other Academicians could hardly be expected to make lithographs: "It would 
be vulgar, levelling themselves to George Cruikshank ! ! ! " Thackeray refers 
more politely to the same prejudice : " If we might raise a humble supplication 
to the artists in our own country of similar merit," he writes from Paris in 
1S40, after looking at the lithographs of the Vernets, the Deverias, "the 
admirable Roqueplan," Raffet, Monnier, Charlet, Decamps — and addressing 
himself to such men as Leslie, Maclise, Herbert, and others — the worth- 
lessness of Thackeray's art criticism was never more hopelessly exposed. 
To compare these forgotten nonentities with the Frenchmen he names 
is charming — "it would be," he goes on, "that they should, after the 
example of their French brethren, and of the English landscape painters, take 
chalk in hand, produce their own copies of their own sketches, and never 
more draw a single Forsaken One, Rejected One, Dejected One, at the 
entreaty of any publisher, or for the pages of any Book of Beauty, Royalty, 
or loveliness whatever." But lithography was a cheap method of multiplying 
their designs. They were afraid to lose caste if they stooped to cheapness. 
Snobbishness was the obstacle to the success of lithography, and Thackeray 
admits- as much when, to suggest a reason for the English indifference to it, 
he says, " With ourselves, among whom money is plenty, enterprise is so 
great and everything matter of commercial speculation, lithography has not 
been so much practised as wood and steel engraving, which, by the aid of 

109 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

great original capital and spread of sale, are able more than to compete with 
the art of drawing on stone." It was a question of money, not of art. 
Eventually a high price was put upon collections or albums of lithographs 
to secure a sale. To-day the attitude of most British artists is more frank, 
though the same. Lithography does not pay, and most British artists do 
nothing that does not pay, if they can help it. 

However, there were artists who devoted themselves to lithography, and 
Prout was one of the earliest. His first dated lithograph is the drawing on 
transfer paper In Senefelder's treatise, done and described as an example of 
pen-and-ink work. Numbers of others were published by him the next year, 
1820, and he contributed to many of Hullmandel's publications. But it was 
not until much later that he produced the works Ruskin was good enough 
to recommend, if foolish enough to group as objects of study with the 
drawings of J. F. Lewis, which, both as drawings and lithographs, are 
commonplace. But considering the lithographs that had been made when 
Ruskin brought out his Elements of Dravoing in 1S57, as an authority upon 
the subject he Is amusing : " Let no lithographic work come into the house 
If you can help It," the British Prophet of Art writes, " nor even look at any 
except Prout's and those sketches of Lewis's." Whether Ruskin, at this 
date, had forgotten Harding, his former drawing-master and friend, or had 
never heard of Bonington and Lane, Isabey and Paul Huet, it would be hard 
to say. But there was a time when he found Harding of service, if only as 
a travelling companion, and could write that no one at the moment " was 
comparable to him for power of representation in a sketch from nature, and 
for natural and unaffected conception In the study." And, curiously, for his 
Illustrations to the Stones of Venice — published in 1851 — he was employing 
J. Rosenthal to lithograph his designs. Rosenthal's work Is excellent, and 
Ruskin is rather severe upon his poor artist and also upon T. Boys, who 
lithographed some of the Examples of Venetian Architecture, Boys copying 
Ruskin's drawings — but then there is no accounting for Ruskin. He 
employed any number of professional lithographers later. Prout and Harding 
were of that fortunate race who lived before cheapness, education, and 
photography, which mean art for the people, were preached and practised. 
If these artists went abroad and returned with a portfolio of drawings they 
could publish them as lithographs or as metal engravings, and there was a 
public to buy them. To-day, the man who might once have bought Harding's 
or Prout's books makes his own snapshots or Indulges in post-cards. 
Prout's Drawing Books were cheap, but his Portfolios were issued by Graves 
and other printsellers at from four to six guineas each. To-day his 
drawings can be enjoyed, but it must be confessed that, well as he puts 
his subjects together in his France, Sivitzcrland, and Italy, or in his 
best collection of all. Sketches in Flanders and Germany, the trembling, 

1 10 




i-^^ 



■5V 




iii-iir-*irtifiliihi 



R. J. Lane : Portrait of Mrs. Jameson. 



EARLY ENGLISH 

tottering line supposed to show the touch of time is mannered, monotonous, 
the work of a copyist, even if of himself. His figures, though admirably- 
grouped, are devoid of character, as one sees in his JMicrocosni, and many 
of his architectural subjects, so highly praised by architects on the advice of 
Ruskin, are woefully incorrect. If he stands out with distinction in Brita^mia 
Deiineata, he Is inconspicuous in the Voyages Pittoresques, where it Is useful 
to study him to form a just idea of his ability, which was great, but exaggerated 
by his critics. However, it is by this sort of criticism that English art has 
become supreme in the opinion of English authorities. 

His contemporary, Bonington, is a truly distinguished artist, though he 
seems at one period to have taken Prout as his model. There are architec- 
tural drawings by him that might almost pass for Prout's. But they were 
exceptions, and in his short life Bonington developed a style that for brilliancy 
and refinement places him at the head of English lithographers. His prints 
are few; fifty-four is the number; and about a fourth were copies. His 
original lithographs, as a rule, are as full of individuality and character as- 
his paintings. Like Prout, he used stone chiefly for architectural subjects ;. 
but, unlike Prout, he succeeded in o-ivincr not only the architecture in all its 
beauty and elaboration, but the atmosphere that enveloped it, the sunshine 
or shadow that transformed it. He did not put away with his paints the 
new problems he was working out ; the world for him, whether he recorded 
his impressions with paint or with chalk, was full of air and light ; and the 
picturesqueness of medisevalism, of the crumbling old church or tumble-down 
house, appealed to him as powerfully as to the ardent young Frenchmen, 
disciples of Hugo, who sang his praise. His architectural work Is found in 
the Petite Nonnandie, or Architecture du Moyen-Age — these prints, ten 
in number, having become very rare ; In the Vues Pittoresques en Ecosse, 
published in Paris in 1S26, and then as Scotch Sketches drazvii on Stone, by 
Colnaghi, in London, in 1829, after his death ; and in the Voyages Pittoresques, 
Baron Taylor having hoped to profit by his co-operation until the completion 
of this huge task. He drew for it only fourteen subjects, but they are his 
best work. All have the lightness, the delicacv, Delacroix thought such a 
virtue. But among the artists of the Voyages Pittoresques, Bonington's 
Gros-Horloge does not impress one so much, amazed as one is with it when 
seen separately. Bonington, it has been said, suffered by the weak printing 
of the early lithographers. But none of his fellow lithographers fared better. 
The averag^e was hicrh in France, and there Bonington holds his own with the 
masters, and his lithographs are to be treasured as the most perfect examples 
of the art produced by an Englishman. 

James Duffield Harding was the typical British lithographer, producing 
not an occasional print, but devoting himself to the art. Of late Harding is 
too often remembered as the man who made trees that look as if they were 

11^1 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

cut out of paper, and who covered the stone with a tint so dehcate that it 
seems in danger of being brushed away. He was mannered ; but his was a 
pleasing manner, and he was not a bit more so than Prout. His hand, or 
rather his dehcate fingers were revealed in everything he did, but his style 
was less aggressive, less disagreeable than Prout's. Both were great tech- 
nicians, masters of all sorts of mediums. But Harding grave more of his time 
and attention to lithography, and he had a keener eye than Prout for the 
picturesqueness of Europe, when it was most pictorial. Scarcely a book was 
published in which his name did not appear, either as the original artist, the 
reproductive lithographer, or the man who turned the amateur's sketch into 
a thing of beauty or prettiness. Not a little of the credit Ruskin gives to 
Lewis and others belongs to Harding, and it is probable that some of the 
charm of Muller is due to him. In his Park and Forest, 1844, published by 
McLean, he made the most distinguished use of Hullmandel's lithotint, a 
method of washing on the stone. ' In Sketches at Home and Abroad (undated, 
but the drawings were made mainly in 1834 and 1S35) are some of Harding's 
finest compositions, which helped to develop tint-work. They are admirable 
renderings of pencil drawings on tinted paper, heightened by Chinese white, 
printed from a second stone or with the lights scraped or etched out in the 
tint. It may be said they are no better than drawing-booky models, but no 
one to-day could get more local colour, character, and picturesqueness into a 
lithograph. The world that laughs at Harding's "old-fashioned" drawings 
some day will return with admiration to wonder why it ever sneered at them. 
The most imposing of the huge portfolios of lithographs is Scotland Delineated, 
and many of the illustrations, mostly stumped, were by Harding. It was 
published by J. Hogarth between 1847 and 1852, appearing in fifteen parts. 
The drawings were by Turner, Harding, Roberts, Stanfield, Cattermole, 
Carrick, and Nash, and lithographed by Harding, Carrick, Cattermole, 
Simpson, Mouilleron, Sabatier, and Ciceri. Many of these prints, though they 
bear the artists' signatures, are the work of copyists. 

Other lithographers were Nash, Boys, Tayler, Cattermole, Barnard, and 
Lewis. The most accomplished was George Cattermole, whose use of lithotint 
was masterly ; in his lithotints, as in Harding's, you seem almost to see the 
actual washes. His men in armour, hunting scenes, tournaments and jousts, in 
fact, his romantic renderings of mediccval subjects, are the best done in England. 
Boys, known for his Viezvs of Paris, Nash, and Frederick Tayler were praised 
by the prophet of their own generation, S. C. Hall, who not infrequently wrote 
the te.xt that accompanied the drawings, and so blew their trumpet and his 

' In connection with this lithotint and Harding's use of it, Hulhnandel, now getting 
old, crops up again. Hullmandel was compelled to protect his patents, and was dragged 
into court, where Harding made a lithotint and, we believe, printed it, no doubt to the 
confusion of all parties. Hullmandel, however, won his claim easily. 

• 114 




Q 



z 

o 

a 



EARLY ENGLISH 

own. But Nash's Baronial Halls of England ^nd Historic Mansions are scarcely 
worthy of the praise lavished upon them by his contemporaries, or the exces- 
sive price they now bring in the sales-room, though they are, technically, 
extraordinary and probably accurate renderings of various buildings ; those in 
colour are remarkable examples of chromo-lithography. Sidney Cooper interested 
himself in animals, especially sheep, and no doubt in this way acquired the 
graceful command of wool which was the astonishment of the public for nearly 
a century. He published two portfolios. The Hop Gr-ound and Studies of 
Rustic Figures, in 1835 or 1837. H. B., the father of Dicky Doyle, turned 
out an enormous series of caricatures of men of the time, which now seem 
sadly wanting in merit and interest, but were once appreciated because the 
likeness was plain to the most unobservant. Boys' excellent work after 
Ruskin has been referred to — it was mostly in colour. 

It is impossible to name every artist who tried stone. One or more prints 
can be traced to David Cox and John Linnell. The sons of Linnell copied 
the Westminster cartoons, and John Linnell, jun., reproduced, with more charm 
than the originals, pictures by Mulready and others. Linnell's rendering of 
Mulready's Sonnet is not only far finer than the original, but technically one of 
the most perfect of English lithographs. It was published in 1848 by the Society 
of Arts, which again returned to the encouragement of lithography in this practical 
fashion, as has been stated. A series is ascribed to Cotman, and the prints are 
signed with his name. They are scarcely successful, they give little idea of his 
work, and they are probably copies. In portraiture England had two artists, 
Lane and Vinter, of distinction, while at times Bauguinet, J. H. Lynch, and 
W. Dumond rank with Achille Deveria at his best. Much of their work 
was reproductive. They copied the pictures of the popular and the Court 
painters of the day. Lane produced a series of reproductions of sketches by 
Gainsborough which are very interesting. But popular personages then had 
themselves lithographed, as in our time they fall a prey to the photographer, 
and Lane and Vinter have left many original portraits. These are worked out 
with orreat elaboration. Susreestion and sketchiness would not have been 
understood by the people they drew. But the elaboration is often beautiful, 
without being pretty, and is always accomplished and workmanlike, for the 
knowledge both artists possessed of lithography and all its methods was com- 
plete. Vinter held for many years the post of Lithographer to the Queen, 
while Lane is the only lithographer ever made an Associate of the Royal 
Academy. 

Most English lithographs were published in expensive albums and portfolios. 
But cheap papers and magazines also used them for illustration, though with 
hardly the success of French papers illustrated by lithography. The Parthenon, 
printed on a " typo-lithographic press," possibly the predecessor of the coming 
offset press, appeared in 1S26, and ran for a few numbers. Both letterpress 

117 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

and illustrations were printed at the same time on the same press, the type 
and drawing in line being apparently transferred to stone. The result is not 
at all bad. A second journal was The Mirror, also 1826, brought out in 
Glasgow. Some years later McLean issued his Monthly Sheet of Caricatures. 
The first scheme for Punch, the London Charivari, was that it should borrow 
not merely the name but the method of illustrating by lithography from its 
French model. This part of the scheme, however, was never carried out. 
Most of these periodicals were remarkable only for the shortness of their 
lives or the triviality of their contents. There never were papers like 
L' Artiste or Le Charivari published in England. 

No man had more to do with organizing the system of publishing the 
large and expensive volumes and portfolios issued in England than Louis 
Haghe. He came, in 1823, to London from Belgium. He had studied his 
profession in his own country. In London he soon went to work with the 
printer Day, and finally became a member of the firm. He contributed many 
drawings to Baron Taylor's book, for which he received medals in Paris. His 
chief work was Picturesque Sketches of Belgium, 1845, published by Graves, 
and justly praised. But one feels that, fine as are some of the designs, they 
are the work of the highly trained specialist rather than the spontaneous 
personal artist. He seems to have thought more of getting a beautiful flat 
tint than character into his work. But this, being technically perfect, was 
enormously popular. 

Wilkie's Oriental Sketches, Roberts' Holy Land, and Mtiller's Age of 
Francis I \N&r& among the other large portfolios. Wilkie's Oriental a.nd Spanish 
Sketches were lithographed in 1843 ^"d 1847 by J. Nash, and published by 
Graves. Save for some of the slighter portraits, there is little merit or character 
in them. Roberts' Holy Land, which in 1840 publishers were prepared to issue 
at a hundred guineas coloured, or fifty plain, for the sale of which it was pro- 
posed in 1842 to run an Art Union, but which was finally sold as a remainder 
in 1853, was the work, not of Roberts, but of Harding and Haghe. The painters 
made sketches which the lithographers translated as they wanted. Haghe 
worked eight years upon the series, though, for some unknown reason, credit 
is generally given to Roberts and Miiller. Roberts said of the lithographs of 
his drawings for the Holy Land that " Haghe has not only surpassed himself, 
but all that has hitherto been done of a similar nature. He has rendered the 
views in a style clear, simple, and unlaboured, with a masterly vigour and 
boldness which none but a painter like him could have transferred to stones." 
Extravagant as is his praise, Roberts probably meant it, for with the lithographers 
who reproduced his Picturesque Sketches in Spain, 1837, he showed his dissatis- 
faction in the most practical manner, working on almost all of the stones, re- 
drawing two of them entirely. The book, however, is disappointing. Haghe's 
most elaborate plate in colour was after Roberts' Destruction of Jerusalem. The 

118 



EARLY ENGLISH 

rapidity with wliich lie did the work was unparalleled, accordin;^ to Roberts 
biographer, but the stone was under-etched, and few prints were taken 
from it. 

Robert Carrick is chietly remembered for a colour print after Turner's 
Vessel Shoiving Blue Lights at Sea (1S50). All contemporary lithographers 
praise it unreservedly, but it scarcely rivals its reputation. Turner had nothing 
to do with it or with any other lithograph after his work ; he apparently never 
made one. Some of Day and Haghe's reproductions of his water-colours, done 
after his death, are technically excellent. 

J. F. Lewis issued three portfolios, The Alhanibra. Sketches of Spain and 
Spanish Character', and Sketches of Constantinople. They are nothing like as 
elaborate as his water-colours, but much more freely drawn. The Spanish 
sketches alone are entirely by Lewis. The illustrations to the Constantinople 
are from the original sketches of Coke Smythe, and the sketches of the Alhavibra 
were re-drawn by Harding, Lane, and W. Guaci, as well as himself. Lewis 
drew only eight out of the twenty-eight lithographs. Ruskin's praise, therefore, 
might as well have been given to Harding or any of the rest as to Lewis. 
Few of the drawings, though some are technically accomplished, are of 
merit. 

Scotland has always taken a prominent part in lithographic work. But 
this work has been mainly commercial, and although Scotch lithographers claim 
that lithography was introduced into Edinburgh and Glasgow before it was 
practised in London, there have been no great artistic results. Lithography 
does flourish in Scotland, but commercially. There never has been a notable 
Scotch publication illustrated by lithography. Several Scotch artists have 
commenced as lithographers, among whom may be mentioned Sir George Reid, 
William Simpson, George McCulloch, and Mr. R. \Y. Allan. In Scotland, from 
the earliest times, endeavours were made to improve and develop transfer paper, 
especially by the firm of Maclure and Macdonald. The best transfer paper made 
to-day and used by artists is known as a Scotch paper. But it is made in 
London by Cornelissen. On the occasion of the anniversary of Senefeider's 
birth The Lithographer (January 15th, 1874) published a drawing on 
Maclure and Macdonald's paper as an example of the highest form and 
greatest development of lithography. William Simpson is the Scotchman 
who made the most distinguished name as a lithographer — no less than as 
the first war correspondent. He began in Glasgow in the lithographic office 
of Allen and Ferguson. Coming up to London, he worked for Day and Haghe, 
and in 1S54 was sent out to the Crimea by Colnaghi, and on his return 
published his Sketches at the Seat of War in the East (1865). They were 
printed in tints, and many were re-drawn, some of the best by Carrick and 
E. Morin. His great work was to have been on India, for which he was to 
do two hundred and fifty subjects commissioned by Day and Son in 1859. It 

121 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

was published in 1S67, but, owing- to business complications, the original scheme 
was modified. It had a good title in colour, and most of the work is in chromo- 
lithography. In fact there is greater use of strong colour in this volume than 
in any of the others. Simpson's title-page and dedication were not of the 
stereotyped form adopted by most of the lithographic albums. His India was 
the last of the great lithographic books of travel produced here or anywhere 
else. There are at the present day artists equally or better qualified to carry 
on the work of their predecessors, but no publishers with sufficient enterprise 
to give them the chance, and few amateurs who can appreciate anything but the 
photograph and the commercial etching. Simpson, Haghe, Lear, and many 
others illustrated an innumerable number of books of travel by lithography ; 
that is, the books contained a few lithographs by these and other artists from 
the various authors' sketches. But scarcely ever do such illustrations rise 
above the commonplace. There may be fine lithographs hidden in these 
illustrated volumes, but if so they are hard to find. 

As a method of dissemination of popular prints, lithography was almost 
killed by the trade union, the " litho artist," and the limited company. This 
was more or less the fault of the professional lithographers, who trained a 
number of people to do their work for them. Haghe's drawings were all but 
finished before he took them in hand. Harding, at the end, merely knocked 
the effect into his landscapes. The consequence was the evolution of the 
"litho artist," the copyist, who could put everything but art on stone. The 
creative artist for thirty years, from 1870 to 1900, had no place in the litho- 
graphic establishment. To understand the degeneracy of the art one need 
only consult some of the trade papers and note how in the beginning litho- 
graphy was discussed as one of the Fine Arts, how to-day its pages are 
filled with reports of strikes and the pitiful whinings of the intelligent British 
workman, who is not free to do as little as he wants to, and that as badly 
as possible. As a profession, lithography is at a low ebb ; it was throttled by 
commerce and trade unionism. As an art, it will flourish again, as in the 
past, in the hands of artists capable of practising it. 



122 




.'mm^'-^-" 



J. M. X. Whistler: St. Giles', Soho. 
Drawn on paper. 



THE REVIVAL 
IN ENGLAND 




7--a. 




J. M. N. Whistler : The Thames. 
Lithotint, drawn on stone, printed by Way. 



THE REVIVAL 
IN ENGLAND 



CHAPTER V 

IN England, after the greatest triumph came the greatest reaction. 
The early lithographers left scarce any followers. Printers remained, 
but they were merely commercial. There were now no publishers of 
artistic lithographs. From the " sixties," from the starting of Once a Week, 
and owing to the success of the illustrated papers containing wood-engravings, 
lithography steadily declined. It was simply a question of the survival of the 
cheapest. The lithograph succumbed before the engraving that could be 
printed with the te.xt. Even the gaudy chromo paled before the quiet wood- 
block. 

Of the artists who were the younger men, when the career of the great 
lithographers was drawing to a close, few showed signs of having even 
heard there was such an art. Ford Madox Brown, who had learnt some- 
thing about it when a student in Antwerp, is to be credited with one 
attempt — a Lithograph drawn from the Original Study for Windei-mere. 
Rossetti experimented in an illustration for Soulies Mimoires dii Diable, and 
in a set of humorous playing cards never published. But the only litho- 
graph by the Pre-Raphaelites or their friends or their followers which is 
remembered is Frederick Sandys' Nightmare, the burlesque of Millais's Sir 
Isumbras, one of the most talked about English lithographs of that or any 
other day. It was a large design in pen and ink on a zinc plate, and few 
proofs were pulled at the time, for Ruskin and Holman Hunt were furious. 
It is said that Ruskin threatened to take legal action, only he did not know 
who was the artist. Either the plate turned up again or a photo-lithograph 
was made from it, for later on the town was flooded with prints. Alfred 
Stevens made a lithograph of the pediment of St. George's Hall, Liverpool, 
and doubtless there were others. But these works marked the end of the 
first period in England rather than the revival of the second, and so little 
was being done that in 1891 William Simpson was justified in describing 
lithography in a paper read before the Society of Arts as "^ Finished Chapter 
of Illustrative Art." 

Commercially lithography flourished. It was taken over by the business 
man, and tied hand and foot by the trade union. A mystery grew up round 
it greater than that from which Senefelder, in defiance of Andre, had freed 

129 F 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

it, while the commercial results possessed not the slightest interest for the 
artist. To him the lithograph, perfect in ev^ery trivial and unimportant detail, 
was an eye-sore ; in the subsequent triumph of the Christmas card and the 
label, the map and the plan, he had no part. To the eminent firms of litho- 
graphers these were palmy days ; the manufacturer knew what he liked, and, 
unabashed and unashamed, he created it. A microscope could find no imper- 
fection in the stippled commonplaceness of his prints, and no German or 
American had appeared to produce the same effect by machinery, or the three- 
colour process, at half the price. But eventually even the public rebelled 
against the chromo, the apotheosis of artlessness. 

It was a period when art had reached its lowest ebb in England ; when 
the slightest performance of a Royal Academician was worth its weight in 
gold ; when painters could not turn out their pictures fast enough ; when the 
Academy floated along upon a flood-tide of universal applause ; when the 
only forms of genuine, spontaneous, original work in the British Islands were 
etching and drawing on wood, and these were being fast monopolized by the 
commercial print dealer and the hack draughtsman ; when, in a word, 
English art was another branch of English commerce. But at this moment, 
when things were about as bad as they could be, at least one man still 
believed lithography to be a means of artistic expression, and undertook to 
prove it. This man was Mr. Thomas Way. Mr. Way was not an artist but 
a printer who had preserved the traditions and knew the secrets of his craft. 
In many of the shops were other printers who understood lithography as 
thoroughly, who had done more work with their own hands, who had pos- 
sibly been more intimately associated with the craftsmen of a former genera- 
tion. But few, if any, were their own masters, though they were master 
workmen. Early in the seventies Mr. Way determined to do what he could 
to revive artistic lithography, and his methods were simple. In the Hogarth 
Club, in his house, in his shop, at artists' studios, he preached lithography, 
and induced artists to practise it. Instead of proclaiming its difficulties, he 
furnished them with stone and paper, with chalks and pens, and persuaded 
them to try what they could do ; and the drawings made by Mr. 
Charles Green and others exist to prove that there was no difficulty for 
the man who could draw. Some of these were published in the set known 
as Hoga7'th Sketches, 1874. But they were experiments. If the artists 
found no technical obstacles to surmount, they do not seem to have felt that 
the medium was for them sympathetic, responsive. Their drawings might 
just as well have been done on ordinary paper as on lithographic stone. 
Lithography had no fascination for them — it did not pay, and nothing further 
happened until 1878, during which year Mr. Way persuaded Whistler to make 
nine drawings, so T. R. Way, his son, says in his catalogue of Whistler's 
lithographs. 




C. H, Shannon : The Bathers. 
Drawn on paper. 



THE REVIVAL IN ENGLAND 

Whistler found in lithography a new means of expression. To the 
others it had been something to play with before supper on a social evening. 
To him it was a medium which would respond to his most sensitive touch, 
and yield results hitherto unsought. In the tirst five of these nine designs 
he tried all the chief manners of working on stone, and in the fifth he solved 
problems that no one had before attempted. The Nocturne and Early 
Morning proved lithotint a means of e.xpression perfectly responsive, and from 
that day Whistler's interest and delight in the art never ceased. His suc- 
cess, however, was wholly artistic, and that counts for nothing. For years, 
if you wanted, you could buy any oi these lithographs for sixpence, some for 
a penny apiece. Goupil's publication of a selection of them in a portfolio 
called Notes in 1887 found for years scarcely a purchaser. And when Whistler 
sent the proofs to the British Artists' Exhibition of 1887-88 a ready writer 
described them as "sketches in Indian ink and crayon, unworthy the glories 
of facsiiiiilc reproduction," thus contributing another episode to the Gentle 
Art of Making Enemies, where it may be read. 

Though Whistler continued to use lithography whenever it suited him, 
it was long before his success encouraged others to take it up. Nor did the 
publication of The Toilet and the Broad Bridge in Piccadilly save that 
journal from failure or develop artistic enthusiasm at the time. In The 
Whirlwind he published The Winged Hat, The Tyresmith, Maunder s Fish- 
shop, Chelsea ; and in The Albemarle, Chelsea Rags ; but both papers quickly 
went the w^ay of Piccadilly. The public and artists remained indifferent. A 
few men, like George McCulloch, practised the art, but his charming work is 
barely known. The Norwich Art Circle for some years illustrated the cata- 
logues of their Exhibition by lithography, the most distinguished contributor 
being Mr. Charles J. Watson. But these lithographs were mostly reproduc- 
tions of other artists' paintings, and the catalogues have disappeared. 

More active interest was awakened among artists when Thomas R. Way, 
on May 5th, 1893, brought stones and a press to Barnard's Inn Hall, then 
occupied by the Art Workers' Guild, a society which at that time counted 
among its members the most brilliant art workers of England. It was not 
until this event that they had any idea of what had been done in lithography 
during the previous fifteen years by Whistler, or in the past by the great 
lithographers of the world, or what could be done in the present. Way then 
showed most of the forty prints which Whistler had made, or he has cata- 
logued as belonging to that period, and also much old work. He created a 
sudden enthusiasm by his lecture and his exhibition and the chance he gave 
the younger men to work then and there upon stone. That night a portfolio 
of lithographs was made. Among the contributors were W. R. Lethaby, George 
McCulloch, H. M. Paget, Joseph Pennell, Frank Short. Save McCulloch, 
none of these men had ever tried to make a drawing on stone before. 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

In the same year more practical encouragement was given to the art. 
The Studio, in its first number, issued as a supplement a large lithograph 
by R. W. Macbeth entitled Burning Brush in the Fens. In the third 
volume, 1894, appeared Whistler's Gants de Suede, and for some years after 
almost every number contained an original lithograph. To this publication, 
and its editor, Mr. Charles Holme, with the Ways who printed most of the 
drawings, must be given the credit for the practical resurrection of the art. 
The Studio was almost as important a factor in the development of litho- 
graphy in England of the nineties, as Ricourt's Artiste was in France of the 
thirties. The other art magazines — the Art Journal and the Magazijie of 
Art — later found a place for lithographs, though more rarely. Mr. Holme is also 
responsible for the almost general use of the term Auto-Lithograph, to denote 
the original lithograph. This term was invented many years ago, but it had 
been abandoned. Much credit, too, is due to Mr. Charles H. Shannon, who, 
in the Dial — "an occasional publication" issued by himself and Mr. Ricketts — 
printed his own lithographs. As it is only occasionally the Dial is dated, it 
is impossible to say whether the first number appeared before the Studio or 
not, but the second number at any rate was issued in 1S93. Mr. Shannon 
set up a press in his studio in the vanished Vale at Chelsea and did his 
work on it. To Lesfros also credit should be oiven. He had made litho- 
graphs before this, as his portraits of Tennyson and others prove, and his 
influence at the Slade School was great. Indeed, he had produced his first 
lithograph in France (Z« Piece a Six Suj'ets) in 1855. 

In 1895, the Centenary Exhibition of Lithography was held in Paris. 
The fact that English artists had worked for Baron Taylor was remembered 
in France, negotiations were entered into with the President of the Royal 
Academy, and Lord Leighton was asked to see that England was properly 
represented. No one will be surprised to learn that when the invitation was 
laid before the Academy it was found that that august body had never done 
anything to encourage lithography, that of all the distinguished lithographers 
in the country, but one, R. J. Lane, had been a member, and he was but a 
humble Associate and was elected less because of his lithographs, upon 
which his fame rests, than because of his drawino-s and engravings, which are 
now forgotten. It is merely another of the unfortunate discoveries made when- 
ever the Royal Academy's connection with British art is looked into. Official 
British art, therefore, would have been unrepresented in Paris, as the 
Academy could scarcely be expected to encourage that which it had never 
admitted to exist, but for Mr. Alfred Gilbert, the sculptor. This artist, who 
himself had worked in a lithographic ofiice, with the sanction of the Academy 
endeavoured to prevent the collapse of the British section. He not only got 
together a fairly good collection of early English lithographs, but hurriedly, 
with the aid of Mr. Charles Goulding, prepared several reams of transfer 

■34 




William Rothexstein: Portraits of Ricketts axd Shannon. 
Drawn on paper. 



THE REVIVAL IN ENGLAND 

paper and distributed it, more or less judiciously, round the studios of London. 
Upon this paper many Academicians and some outsiders drew with pen, with 
chalk, and with wash. So slight was their knowledge of lithography, that 
several did not know upon which side of the paper to work. But Mr. 
Goulding, with great skill, transferred all the drawings to stone, paper playing 
at this critical juncture as important a part in the art of lithography as when 
Senefelder requested the Crown Prince of Bavaria to draw upon it, and 
British lithography was saved by paper. It is unnecessary to add that few 
of these lithographs possessed any lithographic quality, and many little artistic 
merit. Save for the prints that came from Macbeth, Mr. Sargent, Mr. Hartley, 
E. A. Abbey, Mr. Clausen, possibly one from Watts, they would not be 
treasured as good examples of the art or even of art. From other sources 
Mr. Gilbert obtained more noteworthy designs. P'ull justice was done to 
Whistler, Legros, Shannon, and Holloway. In connection with this episode 
a curious incident is to be chronicled for future historians. When one of this 
collection of lithographs was sent to the Royal Academy the following year- 
the Hanging Committee, with their usual intelligence, rejected it, calling it 
"a process." Though they rejected this print by an outsider, Mr. George 
Thomson, they hung one by an Academician done in the same way. It 
thus became evident, suddenly, that in the Royal Academy a lithograph, 
when not by a member, is not a lithograph if drawn upon paper, and runs 
the risk of being refused by the Royal Academy of Arts ; but when its own 
members wish to make lithographs they use paper, send the results to Paris, 
where of course they are accepted as lithographs, expose them in a print 
shop opposite their own back door as lithographs, and even hang them on 
their own walls when they do not know the difference : a perfect example of 
British artistic official knowledge of history and technique. 

It is outside the province of this book to speak of the chromo-lithographs 
of commerce ; therefore the reproductions of Mr. Griggs, Marcus Ward, 
Vincent Brooks, Day and Son, and other firms are not mentioned, nor is there 
any reference to Vanity Fair portraits. These have been, and are often 
excellent, but the excellence is due to the water-colour drawings by Ape 
and Spy, and other artists, who have rarely had anything to do with the 
stone or the transfer paper, the print being the work of also excellent 
professional lithographers. 

In the revival of lithography Whistler' is the first artist in England to 
be considered, and he holds an equally important place with Fantin-Latour in 
France and Menzel in Germany. But to these three artists the revival must 

' Whistler, as a lithographer, is better discussed in this chapter than anywhere else, 
though he is not a British artist, because the greater part of his work was done in England, 
less in France, and none in America. In fact, there have been comparatively few 
artistic lithographs made iu the United States until within the last year or so. 

137 F* 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

be attributed. From 1S78 until 1895, Whistler continued to work, and he 
made, according to Way's catalogue, Mr. VVhist/ers Lithographs, at least one 
hundred and sixty designs. To look through them is to be impressed by 
their elegance and daintiness, to find the supreme but indefinable quality 
called style. He is as perfect a master of his material in all its variety 
and subtlety, as the poet is of rhythm. He drew on stone in the seventies, 
on paper in the nineties. He worked in wash ; the iVocturne, Liinehouse, 
Early Mornitig, The Toilet, The Thames from the Saz'oy, almost his last, 
were done in this way. He drew with chalk. He painted with the stump, 
and if, ordinarilv, he got his effect with black and white, occasionally he used 
colour with a delicacy and restraint that make one wish his colour prints 
were more numerous. 

He always went to the life about him for subjects and found beauty in 
it. There is a long London series. Throughout, as in London itself, you 
come constantly upon the river, its "green garlands and windy eyots forgot," 
as, barge-laden and all astir with life, it flows between the grey splendour 
and squalor of the motley shores. We see the shipping at Limehouse ; the 
fairyland of Chelsea in the hour before night ; the swing of the stream at the 
Savoy, with Wren's city in solemn graciousness rising above it ; the wide 
curve of the Embankment, and the dirty dreariness of the Surrey side, 
where the Thames fiows under Waterloo Bridge. His pleasure in London 
was not restricted to the Thames. He drew, too, its little old shops, its 
theatre doors, its churches — St. Anne's and St. Giles's. 

In 1893 and 1894 he was working in France, where he delighted in the 
market-place of the provincial town or the houses rotting on the old canal 
bank ; in Paris, it was in the shop of the Frnitiere and the Blanchisseuse, or 
of the BlacksiJiith, with its vague shadows and phantom shapes, and rich 
background of darkness — not a flat black wall, but darkness visible. He 
found other motives in the Luxembourg Gardens with their broad terraces, 
wide flights of steps, prim paths and classic avenues, their groups of Bdbds 
all frills. Bonnes all ribbons, Parisiennes all chie. 

In these years, too, his portraits were many: beautiful impressions of 
beautiful women — La Belle Dame Endormie, La Belle Dame Paresseiise, La 
Jolie Nezu Yorkaise, the Gants de Suede; several studies of men — Sti'phane 
Mallarmd, which appeared as a frontispiece to the poet's volume of verse. 
The Doctor, published in the short-lived Pagea^tt ; one or two portraits of 
children. There are also his little nudes, with the harmony of line, the 
purity of pose, the grace of contour for which they have been likened to the 
work of Tanagra ; some in colour. Of these colour prints few proofs were 
pulled. It was intended that they should be published in a portfolio by Mr. 
Heinemann, to be called Songs on Stone ; it was announced but never appeared. 
Before the figures, and the drawings made in Brittany, could be printed, the 

138 




J. S. Sargent : A Study. 
Drawn on paper. 



THE REVIVAL IN ENGLAND 

printer and the stones vanished and only a few trial proofs, all iliffcrent, 
remain. 

In 1895, Whistler went to Lyme Regis and there made studies of the town 
and the people, including several remarkable drawings of horses in black- 
smiths' shops, a proof of his theory that an artist who can draw anything 
can draw everything. 

Whistler's lithographs were made not to please an editor or publisher, 
not in response to fads or movements, but because lithography happened to 
be the method of artistic expression which, at the time, met his need and 
mood. Their appearance in magazines, portfolios, or books was, with the 
exception of the MallarmL^ possibly and one or two of the early plates, an 
afterthought. His idea in the beginning was that lithography being a cheap 
process, he could by it appeal to the people, but the people never cared for 
his lithographs or for him — at least not until his work became financially 
valuable — and eventually he and all other artists found the making of litho- 
graphs, in this country, a most extravagant luxury. 

There is a full statement in T. R. Way's annotated Catalogue of Mr. 
Whistlers Lithographs, with many of the notes in Whistler's handwriting, and 
the method by which nearly all the drawings were done is there stated, but 
the facts were not published. Of one hundred and eight prints which are 
described in the first edition, twelve are on stone, ninety-four are on paper, 
one or two are undescribed, and of two or three it is said, " on stone and on 
paper." After this Whistler did some fifty more subjects, only one of which it 
is certain that he made on stone : the Thames lithotint. Apropos of this, the 
British Museum Print Room has the first state and the last of this drawing — 
and they prove how Whistler had to work to get his design into the condition 
he wanted. These facts and figures have never been given before, but they 
are significant and prove that, for artists, Senefelder's statement that transfer 
paper was the most important part of his discovery has come true. Whistler 
worked in the beginning on stone, making his first nine drawings on stone, 
simply because some of the subjects he could draw in the studio to which the 
stones were sent. And as for the rest of the nine, the story is that the 
Ways were good enough to supply him also with barges, barrows, and porters 
to lug the stones about. But as many of the remaining drawings were done 
in the streets of London and Paris, or on little tours and journeys in the 
French and English country, he soon found, as all artists find, that even for 
work in his own studio, or his friends' houses, paper was the only thing 
that was practical, and then, as artists do, he liked it. In this form of 
art, as in all others, he adapted the methods and the means to his own 
requirements. The paper he was forced to use was either the mechanically 
grained German fabrication, as can be seen, for example, in the Whirlwind 
prints, or a paper the Ways later supplied him with, coated with a brittle 

141 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

yellow which he certainly did not regard as too satisfactory, and he went to 
work as usual for himself. He simply bought some Japanese tracing-paper, 
which somebody told him would transfer perfectly, as it does — as any paper 
will, though the fact was not then known, or rather it had been forgotten 
from the time of Senefelder — and laying a sheet of this Japanese paper upon 
a ribbed book-cover or piece of rough cardboard, and drawing on that, as it is 
known he did in the case of the Mallarme portrait, he got all the grain he 
wanted, and if he saw that it was in any wav becomino- regular or mechanical, 
all he had to do was to shift the paper and the mechanical look disappeared. 
But he never did know that he might as easily have drawn on one of his 
sheets of old Dutch paper, had the drawing transferred from that to the stone, 
and printed on other Dutch sheets. It was not until about 1898, when 
Charles Goulding showed to certain artists that ordinary paper need only be 
coated with size, and when, too, it was discovered by accident that it need 
not be prepared at all, that the great barrier between artist lithographers and 
the art was swept away. It is sad to relate that by this time Whistler had 
almost ceased to work in lithography, discouraged more by expense and 
complications and secrecy than anything else. But in the twenty years that 
Whistler did jiractise the art he revived it in this country. He revived it 
with the greatest difficulty, for he had everything to contend with. Over 
and over again his drawings, sent from Paris or the provinces to the 
printers in London, went wrong. Beautiful drawings were put upon the 
stone and came out ghosts, or rolled up too black and required a special 
journey to London and days of work to get them right. But work was 
something that Whistler never shirked, and he stuck at the stones to 
which his drawinos had been transferred until he oot what he wanted. 
There was sold in 191 3 at Sotheby's a large collection of letters from 
Whistler to Tom R. Wav, filled with suooestions and corrections, and 
hopes and fears for these very lithographs. This collection was purchased 
by a Mr. Hudson. It should have been purchased by the British Museum 
or the Library of Congress at Washington, for it is the most interesting 
technical document on lithography that exists. What became of it was not 
stated at the time.' 

Over and over again, in the mass of letters, there are statements like the 
following : " You know how exceedingly particular I am in the careful con- 
sideration of every detail." 

He tells again and again how he looked after the paper and wanted every 
proof pulled on the paper he supplied, and this was to be damped just as for 
his etchings. 

Then he says, in time he hoped to set up a lithographic press. 

' It is now said that it was purchased for Mr. C. L. Freer, and it is to be hoped that 
this is so, and that it may become the property of the United States. 

142 




\s. 






\ 



William Stkaxg : Thk Aktist's Portrait. 
Drawn on Van Gelder paper, transferred to stone, and printed on Van Gelder paper. 



THE REVIVAL IN ENGLAND 

Then he hopes thinos in a proof will stay exactly as they are — he 
did not know how they would change — and they would become as fascinating 
as the etchings ; and, too, he would learn to work the stumped chalk like 
the brush, and the work would have on stone the mystery of painting. 

And then his troubles. The crayon estompe was like a piece of candy 
— all spotty and in dots. That was the etching. Crude and unmodelled 
was a design which must be destroyed. Wipe it off the stone. But he 
would go on working out things — and then, as to paper, put them properly 
down ; more margin at the bottom than the top. But they will be lovely 
things, which shall be very fair ; but he had sent Dutch paper, and he 
wanted proofs on that. He also found some transfer paper that ought to 
be better than the German paper — and about one-third the price. Then 
there are directions as to wetting the paper — like wetting that for etchings. 
Some of the proofs came back to him in Paris delightfully printed, and 
he sent all sorts of compliments. Then mystery began. He could not 
expect them to give away secrets of the house ; then he might start a 
press in Paris and make lithography all the fashion. He continually noted 
the proofs which were delightful, the stone never touched by him. Then 
things began with his experiments to get complicated, as he did not touch 
or see the stone ; then things began to go wrong, or he began to learn 
more. 

Then he wanted to do tint stones, and evolved an idea that register 
marks should be made, and he would draw on transparent paper and print 
that on the top. This never came off, but is an excellent idea. He talks 
of zinc, and he acknowledged Way as the reviver of lithography, and that 
his proofs were excellent. Over and over this is said. When they went 
wrong he did not mind how much time he spent getting them right ; but 
no doubt, had he been allowed to etch and to print them, had he been 
allowed to see them put down as artists now put them on the stone, he would 
have gone far beyond anything he, or Way, ever imagined ; for the best work 
can only be done, either by the artist alone or in conjunction with a printer by 
whose side he stands all the while. And this, during years. Whistler 
never had the chance of doing. Way's printing was excellent, admirable, 
fine ; but had Whistler stood beside the excellent etcher and printer as he 
worked at his copper-plate press, he would have carried out and carried 
on all sorts of schemes he dreamt of, imagined and suggested — few of 
which were thought of, or believed in, by the excellent, but conservative, 
printer. 

Whistler, as has been stated, hoped by lithography to appeal to the people, 
and allowed several of his drawings to be published in various papers and maga- 
zines. But he soon found that the only persons who cared for his lithographs, 
that is sufficiently to buy them — his idea was to publish them in large 

145 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

numbers for a small price — were the same intelligent persons who collected his 
etchings, and he gave up the scheme, quickly finding out that it was not worth 
while to throw pearls at the people. It may be said incidentally that a recent 
catalogue has offered some of these very prints for los. 6d. apiece. And the 
same catalogue showed that while some of Whistler's etchings can be bought 
for ^4. 4s. each, and some of Rembrandt's for the same price, and some of 
Meryon's for £1 los., while the work of some modern etchers can be 
obtained for any price from ^165, yet great lithographs are still to be had 
for I OS. 6d. One need not be on the Stock Exchange, nor in the print 
business, to know that lithographs by the greatest lithographer of modern 
times at los. 6d. apiece are worth securing without delay. In Way's second 
edition of the Catalogue of Mr. Whistler" s Lithographs, it will be seen that 
with the exception of the set published as N'otes and the transfers published 
in magazines and papers, the average number of proofs pulled from each stone 
was about twenty, while of many of them, and they are some of the best, 
there were only three or four. After his death, his executrix saw fit to 
reprint some fifty by another printer, but as these are printed on modern 
paper and unsigned they cannot be mistaken for prints pulled during his 
lifetime and under his supervision and signed by him, though the forging of 
artists' signatures on proofs is coming into fashion ; and as the prints were 
not pulled by Way there is no danger of the intelligent collector being- 
deceived by them. Way, too, in his catalogue has given a list of reprints. 

Whistler made lithographs because he liked to make them. But though 
he did not live to see it, he did revive lithography in England and America. 
Though he did not live to profit by it, he did create a demand for lithographs 
among dealers and a love for them among collectors and amateurs. What 
was more important was that he did awaken artists to the beauty and the 
simplicity of the art. He proved, despite all difficulties of paper and of 
transferring, and of people who tried to interfere and made themselves ridiculous, 
that the artist may take, as he did, a tiny portfolio out of doors containing a 
few sheets of thin Japanese paper, a little box of lithographic chalks — he 
usually carried his in a silver match-box — and bring back a masterpiece. 
Had he known what is known now, and the art is only at the threshold 
and much, as he said, " is beyond the ken of us beginners," he would 
have made more lithographs and made them with half the trouble and half 
the time he spent in getting back what was originally in the drawing. 
Had he been able, or rather had his printer been able, to preserve the 
original as artists can now, following the advice of Senefelder ignored for a 
hundred years, he could have transferred and retransferred his drawing until it 
came right on the stone, or he could, with his original before him, have 
corrected the stone. And the original would be in existence to-day. When 
once, not long ago, these things were pointed out to a printer, he said he did 

146 




JJ.J- , 



J. Kerr Lavvson : II Ponte. 
Lilhotint, drawn on stone by the artist, and printed by liim at the Senefelder Club Press. 



THE REVIVAL IN ENGLAND 

not see that there was anything In it. But artists can sec that there is a 
good deal, and that it proves whether the printer does his work properly or 
not. This method e.xposes the printer, and takes considerably more time and 
trouble, and some people do not care to take time and trouble and to be 
exposed as well. 

The early prints of Alphonse Legros are not dated, but it is known 
that his earliest e.xperiments date as far back as 1855. His lithographs, as 
a rule, resemble his chalk drawings, which, in their turn, resemble his silver 
points. Legros seldom, whatever his medium, tried to express the quality of 
that medium, but rather confined his technique to a formula which he had 
evolved from the drawings of the Old Masters. It is often beautiful and 
correct, and his composition always has dignity. There is always charm in 
his grey tones. He never seems to have attempted to obtain the richness 
and depth which Manet and Fantin-Latour, with whom he worked in the 
beginning, inherited from the earlier lithographers. But with his greys he 
got the effect and the colour, all the subtlety of tone he wanted. He was 
so untouched by passing "movements" that you feel in his prints the repose, 
the serenity that distinguishes the drawings of the Old Masters he loved, to 
whom he was alwavs faithful. And vet he had upon the vouneer EnoHsh 
lithographers, as upon the younger etchers, a great influence, and among 
them he still remains the master. Legros was a Frenchman, but he had 
been in this country since the early sixties, and he finally became naturalized. 
He can hardly be called French or English, but more truly a belated Old 
Master, and at times a very distinguished one. Of the men who have been 
his pupils, not one is better known than Mr. William Strang, who studied 
with him at the Slade School. Mr. Strang's lithographs so far have been 
few, but these few have as marked a character as his etchings. They are 
mainly portraits, simple and dignified, with a touch of severity that has 
its charm. Some of his best work has been drawn on papiei" Ingres, transferred 
to stone by Goulding, and printed on the same paper with excellent results. 

Mr. C. H. Shannon has not only contributed to his own publication, 
the Dial, but to the Savoy and the Pageant and U Estampe Originate, in 
■which appeared one of his most graceful designs, a study of a woman in i860 
dress. He has published several prints of large size, and he has issued a 
series of portfolios in limited editions, each containing some half-dozen 
portraits and compositions. In his practice of the art he is thorough to a 
degree to which no other English lithographer attained until quite recently. 
Not content with making his drawings, he set up a press for himself, and 
did, or had carried out under his supervision, the work of transferring, 
etching, and printing. Mr. Shannon, like Fantin-Latour, often depends for 
his effects upon the white obtained by scratching and scraping. His litho- 
graphs are notable, not so much for the subject, which at times is scarcely 

149 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

his own, or the drawhig, which usually is weak, but for his technical mastery 
of the medium. He seeks mainly for silvery, pearly greys, and in some of 
his prints these are of surprising beauty. The greater part of his work has 
been done on paper and some of it has been printed by Way. But at 
present he seems to have become discouraged, and for the last two or three 
years has done little or nothing- — apparently nothing since the revival of 
lithography, in which he was one of the first followers of Whistler, has been 
assured. 

The late C. E. Holloway, in conjunction with T. R. Way, produced a 
portfolio of sketches on the river, most of which were, with great physical 
labour by others, drawn upon the stone, out of doors. In subject they were 
good, but Holloway, though he had made many etchings, was not sufficiently 
at home with the point, in this case the chalk, to be altogether successful. 
Had he but used stump or wash for his drawings, had he drawn as he 
painted, his lithographs would have been more memorable. 

T. R. Way, the son of Mr. Thomas Way, was the only trained lithographer 
in England who endeavoured to put his knowledge to artistic use. Not only 
did he, with his father, encourage artists, but he practised the art. He began 
by making on stone a finished drawing, after the portrait of Whistler's 
Mother, a copy, which is not only a good lithograph but seems to have 
pleased Whistler. After that he gave up drawing on stone almost altogether, 
and, taking paper out of doors, devoted himself to Old London, and issued 
a series of albums and books. He also made a number of studies, some of 
which are interesting, in colour, but his best work was in his reproductions 
of Whistler's pastels. Several, which appeared in the Shidio, and in his 
Reminiscences of Whistler, are of great technical excellence. There are also 
some notable nocturnes in colour, and he induced the " Underground" railways 
to issue artistic posters, and made a large number for them. 

Mr. Will Rothenstein has published two volumes of portraits, the first, 
Oxford Characters {1896), not altogether a success, and the second, in 
which he made great advance, English Portraits (1898), the best work he 
has yet done. He draws in chalk, on paper, in line, with but little 
endeavour to give tone or colour. Many of the old masterpieces of litho- 
graphy were portraits, and now, thanks to Whistler, the lithographers of 
the new generation begin to value the possibilities of portraiture in litho- 
graphy. For the portrait of Mr. Ricketts and Mr. Shannon, Mr. Rothenstein 
received the suggestion from Gigoux, by way of Gavarni, which shows that 
he is studying good masters. When he made it, his work was so rapidly 
improving that it is a great pity he has not kept on with it, now that litho- 
graphy is revived. Charles Ricketts made a fine poster for the International 
Society of Sculptors, Painters, and Gravers. Charles Conder also paid 
some attention to the art about the same time, producing a small number of 

150 




Ethel Gauaix : Thk Rkveli.ers. 
Drawn on stone, printed by the artist. 



THE REVIVAL IN ENGLAND 

prints in which subjects similar to his fans are treated in much the same manner 
as in his water-colours and other drawings. Had he continued the work, with 
increasing command of the medium, he might have attained to finer accom- 
plishment. 

Almost all the better known painters have made various essays, chiefly 
in connection with the Paris Exhibition — essays cheerfully forgotten. The 
principal exception is Mr. John S. Sargent, who, in his study of a model, 
obtained force and richness in colour. Abbey's and Mr. Parsons' few 
attempts are not without merit. But the list of experimenters might be 
extended indefinitely. The most important are Mr. Oliver Hall, who seeks 
for the picturesqueness of landscape and finds it in his lithographs and 
etchings, the little work he has done making one regret that he has not done 
more ; Mr. Georee Thomson, who, until the Academv disheartened him, 
was so great an enthusiast that he, like Mr. Shannon, set up a press of 
his own, and his prints for several seasons figured on the walls of the New 
English Art Club; Mr. J. McLure Hamilton, who began to work in colour, 
with one or more portraits of Mr. Gladstone. Since the revival Mr. Hamilton 
has set up a press, and his studies and sketches in colour are revealing a power 
of draughtsmanship and a searching for effect which are most remarkable. He 
is succeeding in making paper, stone, and chalk render strength, beauty, and 
charm as no one has done before. 

But interesting as were these experiments and many besides, the actual 
causes of the revival of lithography, apart from the publication of occasional 
lithographs by Whistler and other artists in art magazines, were, first, the 
international Centenarv Exhibitions held in Paris, London, Diisseldorf, and New 
York, and, second, the encouragement given to artists — in England by 
Frederick Goulding, who allowed artists to come to his place and work with 
his brother Charles Goulding, and in Paris by M. Marty, of L'Estanipe 
Originale, and M. Duchatel, Lemercier's printer. In Germany there had 
always been, more or less, this sort of interest in the art, and Graphic Art 
exhibitions, in which lithography was prominently displayed, had always been 
held. Mr. Charles Goulding's encouragement did not stop with the Paris 
Exhibition. His workroom remained open to artists. Secrecy hitherto had 
been the trouble. The artist had taken his drawing on paper or stone to the 
printer, and he had neither seen nor known anything further about it, until 
a print was returned to him. The methods employed were those of the 
Trade Unionist and the Middle-Aoe maeician, both of which are ridiculous, and 
the expense was prohibitive except to people with plenty of money, for in 
England there was no sale for lithographs. They were unnoticed by the 
critics, ignored by the collectors, and therefore most dealers did not want 
them. The artist who made them did so for his own pleasure. It is 
astonishing to consult Way's Catalogue and to see how few prints were 

153 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

pulled from Whistler's stones and how small were the prices he got for 
those few. Every artist who, like Whistler, persevered and kept on with 
lithography, had to face the same difficulties and discouragements. It was 
not because of the methods of the printers who put his drawings on stone 
that he got his good results, but despite them. The drawings, if sent 
to Way, were treated with the greatest care, but it was inevitable, 
according to his methods, that the first proofs the artist received should 
be at times little like the drawings he had entrusted to the printer. Had 
he been allowed to stand over the printer, to etch his drawings, and to 
direct the printing, or to print them himself he would have been saved 
a great deal of unnecessary work, which he was compelled to do, in 
order to get what he wanted, or to restore the drawings to their original 
state. Another difficulty was that, by the usual method employed in 
England, the drawing was bodily transferred to the stone, and there remained 
no record of it, save the print, good or bad. No appeal was possible from 
the printed result. Charles Goulding, a trained lithographer, went into the 
work in a very different spirit. The first thing that he did, working with his 
brother Frederick Goulding, was to preserve the artist's drawing by a 
method which Senefelder had pointed out, but which was unknown to, and 
unpractised by, every other lithographer. The drawing being preserved, the 
artist could see the imperfections of the print, and make his corrections ; he 
could put it down again if necessary. While instead of being left in an 
outside office as usual, he was allowed by Goulding to stand by the etching 
bath and the printing press, taking and giving advice, the right way in 
which work should be done. 

After the Paris Exhibition {1895) the most notable event in London was 
a show of Whistler's work at the Fine Art Society's (1895). It was an 
artistic success, and scarcely more. But it had its effect. At least one artist 
turned seriously to lithography — Joseph Pennell, who wrote at Whistler's request 
the introduction to the catalogue, and then made two series of drawings : one in 
Cornwall and Devon, one in Spain. The Saturday Revieiv and other papers 
began to publish supplements illustrated by lithography. And then a chance 
incident drew more attention than ever to the art. A small show of Mr. 
Pennell's lithographs of the Alhambra, held at the Fine Art Society's (1896), 
called forth an article in the Satwday Review, by Mr. Walter Sickert, that 
pretended to criticize the prints but that really was an attack upon Whistler 
for using transfer paper. It declared that lithographs made on paper were not 
lithographs, and accused artists who made their drawings on transfer paper and 
called them lithographs of dishonesty — of endeavouring to obtain money by 
false pretences. There was a libel action. The critic and the paper were 
proved ignorant of the art and practice of lithography, and the result was a 
reawakening of interest on every side. Very soon lithographs began to appear 

154 




E. J. Sullivan : The Loves of Zephyrus and Flora. 
Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by C. Goulding. 



THE REVIVAL IN ENGLAND 

in exhibitions. Mr. E. J. Sullivan, who had been working with Goulding, 
sent a remarkable series to the International, and Mr. Frank Brangwyn 
began to do occasional drawings. Then the Whistler Memorial Exhibition 
(1905) strengthened this interest by showing not only the possibilities of the 
art, but the wide range of Whistler's work in the medium. At the County 
Council Technical Schools lithographic classes were started. Classes were formed 
at Bolt Court, London, for professional lithographers, and later at the Central 
School, in Southampton Row, for artists who wished to get a technical 
training. These classes were directed mainly by F. Ernest Jackson, who 
had been studying for some time in Paris, and had there gained theoretical 
knowledge as well as practical experience. Owing largely to Mr. Jackson, 
The Neo/ith, entirely produced by lithography — illustrations and text both — 
was published during 1907-8. In its pages several artists who had studied 
under Mr. Jackson, or had been working quietly by themselves, proved the 
resources of the art and their proficiency. To the four numbers, Hartrick, 
Sullivan, Brangwyn, Jackson, Spencer Pryse, Kerr Lawson, Joseph Pennell, 
Clausen, Shannon, Belleroche, Oliver Hall, were among the contributors. 
The Neolith was directed by F. Ernest Jackson and Spencer Pryse. 
Graily Hewitt wrote the letterpress — which was transferred and printed, 
the whole being in lithography. It ran only for a year, but in the 
year it confirmed these artists in their belief in, and devotion to, lithography, 
and shortly after, in 1908, Messrs. Jackson, Hartrick and Lawson called a 
meeting for the purpose of forming a society of lithographers. Several 
artists attended, but nothing definite was done until Joseph Pennell, who had 
been in America, returned to London, when he joined the three others, 
who, banding themselves together, took a studio, purchased a lithographic 
press, and hired a printer, with the idea of doing their own work. They 
next formed a small Club, of which they became the Committee, and of 
which the early members were J. McLure Hamilton, John Copley, Miss 
Gabain, Miss A. E. Hope, and H. Becker. Mr. William Marchant became 
interested in the scheme, and offered to hold an exhibition in his gallery, and 
it was opened there in 1909. To this first exhibition not only did the 
members contribute, but many foreign artists sent work from the Continent. 
The Senefelder Club, as the society called itself, was soon supported by nearly 
all the other artist lithographers in England, among them Spencer Pryse, 
Brangwyn, Wehrschmidt, Way. In the five years of its existence it has 
become recognized not only in England, but in Europe and America. It 
is a vital force in the revival. In addition to the annual exhibitions held 
in London by its members, it has given between forty and fifty other 
shows on the Continent and in America. Everywhere dealers and collectors, 
amateurs and museum directors have displayed an interest in the art, each 
in his own way, and to-day there is a more genuine artistic movement in 

157 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

lithography than in etching. Although the Senefelder Club did not start 
the revival of lithography, it has had everything to do in developing this 
revival and in placing lithography again among the graphic arts as a genuine 
method of expression. 

Note. — The most brilliant of the younger men are all now making remarkable lithographs, 
and they are being encouraged by collectors and dealers to do so — as well as by publishers. 
The series of drawings shown this year in the gallery of Goupil & Co. — as well as on the 
hoardings of the London Underground — prove conclusively that there is a genuine renaissance 
of the art. And these prints have been received in the great e.xhibitions of Paris, Leipzig, Rome, 
and Venice with applause. The applause is not necessary — but the acknowledgment by the 
artists of Europe and America is genuine. And the Senefelder Club, which has made this come 
about, will be recognized in the future as one of the causes of the resurrection of the art of 
Lithography. 



'58 







vmmm 



John Coplky : Remi, The Priest of the Sacred Grove. 
Drawn on stone and printed by the artist. 



REV I VAL 
IN FRANCE 



,?* 







.iixy^q no nwjBiG 



H. Fastin-Latour : Roses. 
Drawn on paper. 



\^^:0'^^'^'^C :^^^ "^ ^^^i^^T^^^^Zr^h.-i 



■2C'---^»i^^''!*S 




REVIVAL 
IN FRANCE 



CHAPTER VI 

FRANCE has seen the same renewed activity in the art of Hthography 
as England. In 1891 Henri Beraldi, in his excellent preface to the 
Catalogue of the Exhibition of Lithography at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts, wrote that the revival was in the air. He pointed out that 
since i860 the more painters had abandoned the art, the more amateurs and 
collectors had begun to think about it. The thirty intervening years had been 
a period of cataloguing, compiling, classifying. Besides, in France, the art had 
never fallen so low, had never disappeared so completely as in England. It 
was after 1840 that the school of reproductive men had been strengthened 
and developed, and though the art was no longer practised by artists for 
pure delight in the medium, as in 1S20, 1830, and 1840, there were a few 
painters of various schools and temperaments who occasionally found that they 
could say something better by lithography than in any other way. Moreover, 
at the moment that decadence was being proclaimed, and regretted, the seeds 
of the reaction or renaissance were being sown. In the sixties a little group 
of young men, who met at Cadart and Chevalier's shop in the Rue Richelieu, 
and who had produced a portfolio of etchings, were induced to try drawing 
on stone : Bracquemond, who was no novice, Manet, who then drew his Ballon, 
and Ribot his Lechire, and Legros ■ his Carriers de Montrouge, and Fantin- 
Latour, who began with a Tanuhtruser au Vennsbcrg the first of his long 
series. Courbet, the master they accepted, had tried his hand in seven or 
eight lithographs — franchenient inaiivais Beraldi describes these prints — and, 
despite Beraldi, Courbet's e.xample probably encouraged them. But of their 
first experiments there was no immediate result. No portfolio was published. 
Two or three of the men rarely touched stone afterward. But Legros, the 
chances are, there received the inspiration which was to bear fruit in England. 
If Fantin-Latour did not continue the work until more than ten years later, 
it was he, of all others, who was destined to adopt lithography pottr donjier un 
corps a ses visions podliques ; he, whose name for years in Paris was as synony- 
mous with original lithography as Whistler's in London, Menzel's in Berlin. 
Possibly, in a practical fashion, more than to any of these men, lithography 

' After this was written Legros told me that he did not make this print at Cadart's, 
but at Lemercier's shop in the Rue de Seine. My authority was M. Germain Hediard's 
Catalogue of Fantin-Latour's lithographs. — J. P. 

i6^ 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

owes its revival in P'rance to a professional lithographer, Jules Chdret. He 
was a designer of menus and of music during an enforced residence in London, 
in the early seventies ; on his return to France he became the pioneer of the 
poster, and it was by his application of lithography to modern uses, in a purely 
modern spirit, that he appealed to artists. His designs were printed in colour, 
but it was felt at once that they were not mere commercial chromo-litho- 
graphs. Though in colour, he showed that the art had lost nothing of its 
vitality, that it was still living, that its practice could be something more than 
a revival of past methods. Without question his posters have had their 
influence. If Cheret was the lithographer of the streets, the artist of the 
hoardings, Duchatel, like Way, was the lithographer of the studio. For 
years, as Lemercier's printer, he encouraged most of the men named, 
taught them how to work on paper and stone, supplied them with their 
materials, and pulled their proofs, and eventually wrote the most practical 
manual on the subject that has yet appeared : Traits de Lithographic Artistiqiie. 
Another printer who devoted himself to artistic colour work, who printed most 
of Whistler's essays in colour, who pointed out the advantage of transfer paper 
to Fantin-Latour, was M. Belfond. In France, as in England, and as it always 
must be everywhere, the printer must work with the artist. Once the artist's 
enthusiasm in the art is aroused, he should purchase stones and a press and 
do the work himself, but, as a matter of fact, most lithographers still work 
with professional printers. 

In 1884 practical interest had so far developed that a Socidi^ des Artistes 
Lithographes was founded, largely owing to the initiative of M. Paul 
Maurou, but this society then mainly encouraged reproductive lithography, 
as it does still. Not until the starting of the New Salon, not imtll after the 
Exhibition at the Ecolc des Beaux- Arts in 1891, and other exhibitions about 
the same time of the work of Fantin-Latour and Daumier, did the revival 
become a movement among artists. The retrospective section of the 1891 
Exhibition was more than the sensation of the moment — it was a revelation. 
On the walls the history of the art unrolled itself, in all its splendour, and 
Paris, that had so quickly forgotten, renewed her interest in the work of the 
past. And it should be a matter of record, that in the modern section of the 
show on the Ouai Malaquais, the work of Lunois made the most immediate 
and powerful impression upon artists who had hitherto spared little thought 
for lithography. Lunois' Hollandaise de Vo/ettdam, a study in wash of a seated 
figure at a window, revealed what seemed to be, though was not, a new and 
remarkable lithographic method. The dark figure against the light of a 
window, that appeared in many shops for a short time, and later with a 
black line across the middle (for the stone soon broke) in many artists' studios, 
was a strong factor in reviving the art. It was done at the right moment. 
Earlier it must have proved less Influential, for in 1887 Whistler's lithographs 

166 




A. LUXOIS : HOLLANDAISE DE VOLENDAM. 

Wash drawing on stone. 



REVIVAL IN FRANCE 

in wash had been issued in the Goupil PortfoHo, Notes, and they were scarcely 
known in France as elsewhere. 

Soon another enthusiast appeared, M. Andr^ Marty, a publisher who, 
in some mysterious manner, devoted himself to inducing artists to make 
drawings, for his portfolios of prints, with the title U Estampe Originale. To 
his portfolios nearly all the more famous artists, not merely of France, but of 
the world, contributed examples of their work, and most were lithographs. 
The publication was an artistic success. It was seen at once, that no special 
training was required to produce a lithograph in black and white, or colour, 
and that in the hands of those who had studied the methods like Lunois, 
and Fantin-Latour, lithography was capable of endless possibilities. This 
publication, in 1892 or 1893, proved how genuine and far-reaching the revival 
was. Other portfolios, Les Peintres Lithographes among them, contained 
distinguished work by well-known artists. Then came in 1895 the Centenary 
Exhibition at the Champ-cie-3Iars, which showed, not only what magnificent 
work had been done in the past, but what astonishing results had been 
achieved in the present ; while the Figaro Lithographc, by its almost perfect 
reproduction of old and modern work, could no longer leave the world in 
ignorance of the fact, that lithography was a living, vital art. From that 
day to this lithography has been more and more practised in France. 

Of the reproductive lithographers it is scarcely necessary to say more 
than that they have perfect command of their medium, that Fran(;ais and 
Sirouy, who are still working, Maurou, Guillon, Leonard, Audebert, Bahuet, 
Lachnitt, Fauchon, Fuch, Lauzet, Hodebert, and others can translate colour 
with the richness of mezzotint, and brush-work with no less fidelity than 
etching. Modern French lithographers, or rather a certain group, could now 
boast, as German lithographers seventy years ago might have boasted, that 
while original lithographs are being made everywhere, they, almost alone, are 
doing the reproductive work of the world. This is the work you see every 
spring in the Old Salon — learned, accomplished — but it must yield to the 
creations of artists no less accomplished and much more personal. It is 
magnificent, but it is not art. 

Manet carried on the old tradition with new work. His lithographs are 
few, fewer still are of great technical merit. But they have the individuality, 
the character, that we prize above the most perfect fidelity of the 
copyist. They were almost all done on paper ; sometimes he used 
colour, as in the Polichinelk. But, master of the brush that he was, he 
was clumsy with lithographic chalk. Not always, however ; Guerre Civile, 
Une Barricade, Portrait de Femnic, Le Gamin, are fine. His illustrations to 
The Raven — the best in wash like Japanese wood-blocks, notably the study 
of a bird on the cover — published by Vanier, were done in lithography in 
the folio edition, and afterwards reproduced as process blocks. They are 

169 G* 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

characterized by that simplicity, that directness which was the dominant note 
of the great so-called impressionist. 

Another artist but little known to the general public is Felicien Rops, a 
Belgian, whose work, as is the case with many artists of foreign nationality, 
can best be seen in Paris. He equally divided his marvellous attention 
between lithography and soft ground etching. Rops' work in lithography 
extends over a long period, beginning in 1854, when he started a paper, 
Uylenspiegel, in Brussels, making lithographs for it ;' at the period when it is 
said there was no lithography some of the most interesting lithographs were 
made. After that he produced probably a hundred and fifty prints, including 
posters, burlesque Salon catalogues, satires, comedies, and a vast collection 
of designs which will scarcely ever find their way into the drawing-room, 
or the hands of the young person. His lithographed comments on war 
and on morals are as forceful, as powerful as the etchings of Callot and 
the aquatints of Goya. If subject and treatment are often as fantastic as Les 
Jeunes of 1830 in their maddest moments could have desired, we never feel 
that Rops is a mere poseur, or that he uses lithography for notoriety. 
He is fantastic because it is thus he saw life, thus he could best express 
himself. As a technician there is much to learn from him. Some of his 
caricatures, in the Crmolinographies, are in the manner and spirit of the 
artists of La Caricature and Lc Charivari. And, original as he undoubtedly 
was, he still at times owes his inspiration to the study of Daumier, for the 
original man is always he who knows how to profit by the example of the 
forerunner. In prints like L'Ordre rcgne a Varsovie and La Peine de 
Mort, there is a tragedy, a grimness, a grandeur that recalls the murder in 
the Rue Transnonain, and it is by these he will be remembered and 
honoured. They have a beauty of colour, a largeness of design, and an 
imaginative force that will prove of greater value than the " modernity " and 
the other qualities for which he is just now most admired. His portraits, 
though his followers might not find in them his most characteristic subjects 
and treatment, show the same dignity in their composition, the same colour 
in their execution. 

Felix Bracquemond began life as a lithographer, though, many as 
are his lithographs, they have never become as famous as his etchings. 
Some of his prints date back to 1854 and perhaps earlier. Others 
were done but yesterday. He has drawn landscapes and figures ; he 
has copied pictures. Technically he is an experimentalist, and sometimes 
he has been careful to record the nature of his experiment, as in a print 
shown at the Grolier Club, made, he explained on the margin, " in order 
to try the colour values which crayon gives for each colour." Others are 
mixed up with etching and process. But except as technical experiments, 
they are not of great importance. At the same period, when lithography had 

170 




K. Toulouse-Lautkec : Cover for L'Estampb Originale. 



REVIVAL IN FRANCE 

reached its lowest ebb, John Lewis Brown was making amusing prints in 
colour. M. Jean Paul Laurens, too, is responsible for creditable performances, 
mostly reproductions, and other lithographers are to be unearthed by careful 
research and might be catalogued by the collector. But the work done before 
1890 which has become a force, a power, an incentive, was mainly by 
Fantin-Latour and M. Lunois. 

After his first attempts in 1S62, Fantin-Latour did nothing more until 
1873. Then it was to take up a theme of which he never wearied — Music. 
He commemorated the festival held that summer at Bonn in honour of 
Schumann by a lithograph, and from that time he never ceased to give on 
stone, though first on paper, his interpretation of the great musicians, just as the 
German, Max Klinger, has endeavoured in etching to give graphic shape to 
the rhapsodies of Brahms. Fantin-Latour worked almost altogether on paper, 
finishing his drawing's on stone. M. Germain Hediard, who has catalogued 
his prints, attributes to the paper, brought to his notice by INL Belfond, 
the printer, not only the fact that Fantin-Latour became an enthusiastic 
lithographer, but the special beauty and quality of his work. Indeed, the 
improvement in transfer paper, so eagerly desired by Senefelder, has had 
everything to do with the revival of the art. The paper more than fulfils 
the inventor's hopes and prophecies, and upon it have been made the most 
masterly and delightful lithographs of modern times. 

In Fantin-Latour's designs, the melodies and harmonies of the musicians 
take visible form as beautiful women and stately men set in poetic 
landscape. To be honest, it is not always easy to discover the significance 
of each composition, to discern its Diotif ; and all, whether he be 
translating Brahms or Wagner, Berlioz or Schumann, are so alike that, 
in the Salon, one year's print seemed but the replica of his work of 
the year before. The similarity is the greater because his technique varies 
less than his composition. But technically he is a master, no one nowadays 
has used the point so effectively, and his composition has always poetic 
charm. Some of his lithographs have been published in series, Le Genie de 
la Mnsiqiie and Vdi'itd. Others have appeared in the Albiun des Peintres 
Lithographes, in M. Duchatel's Ti'aiie, and one, a portrait of Edwin 
Edwards, drawn on paper, which was sent over to London to be transferred 
to the stone, and printed by Way, came out in the Albemarle. 

Alexandre Lunois is a much younger man than Fantin-Latour, and at 
the show in the Beaux-Arts, 1891, he began his career. But this doubtless 
made his influence the stronger over his contemporaries. His deliberate 
return to the old method was an argument in its favour. La Petite Hollandaise 
was a triumph. He had been copying Daumier, and M. Lhermitte, and M. 
Jean Beraud, and receiving medals at the Salons of 1882 and 1883, and 
already, in 1891, he had been to the East, had drawn a Femme Arabe and 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

Femmes Arabes tissant un Burnous, though it is in Spain that he has found 
his most sympathetic subjects. Year after year his lithographs have been a 
centre of interest in the New Salon. They are the work of the adventurer 
trying new methods, seeking new effects — brilHant impressions rather than 
elaborate poems, like the prints of Fantin-Latour. He has been most successful 
in the use of colour. At first his hand was heavy, but in his later work his 
colour is warm and CTlowinsr, full of life and drawingf. 

There are several men whose names are suggested by that of Lunois — - 
Anquetin, Valloton, Ibels, Toulouse-Lautrec, Steinlen, Odilon Redon — all 
modern, all experimentalists, all artists. Anquetin, who at times works in a 
romantic vein that recalls Daumier, and Valloton, whose lithographs closely 
resemble his woodcuts, have done comparatively little. But Toulouse-Lautrec, 
with his posters, his frontispieces, his occasional small prints, notes of the 
Cafd Chantant, and the Moulin Rouge, his monograph on Yvette Guilbert, 
published by Marty, had almost as much to show as Lunois, and, with 
him, was responsible for the amusing colour work on the walls of the 
New Salon and in L'Estampe Originale. He made great use of flat tone, 
applying the scheme of the Japanese colour printer to lithography. There is . 
no better example of his work than the cover, also used as a poster, for 
U Estarnpe Originale. M. Ibels chooses the same themes — the cafd, the 
theatre, vulgar men and doubtful women — and treats them in the same 
relentless manner. M. Steinlen, a Swiss, has made posters, and designed 
book covers, and contributed to papers, and illustrated Les Chansons de Femmes. 
His subjects are those of his drawings : the people of Paris, the little ouvriere 
on her way home, tired men and women in the crowded tram, in his back- 
grounds a glimpse of the streets, their lights and movement and gaiety. 
He has drawn the cat, and is one of the few artists to understand her. 
He gets a delightful quality into his work, a soft all-pervading greyness, 
with now and then a black note in a cat's fur or the sleeve of a dress. 
Often his distance is lost in dim shadows, effective and mysterious. He 
seldom works in pure line, but uses the chalk almost as if it were wash. 
His illustrations for Gil Bias Illustre were apparently drawn upon zinc 
and etched for the colour printer, but they were drawn like lithographs with 
chalk, and even in the cheap printing of that now forgotten illustrated paper 
they were memorable works of art. 

M. Forain and M. Willette have made lithographs — Forain a few, 
Willette many, but Forain's drawings in the Figaro, like Steinlen's, have a 
lithographic basis. Willette's, like his chalk drawings, are, in fact, multipli- 
cations of his designs made with a greasy, instead of an ordinary, pencil. 
Pierrot figures in them, and his impudent little Parisienne, as much a type 
as the Lorette of Gavarni, and the allegorical beings who are so unexpected 
in his compositions. His allegory may be serious enough to him, but it 

174 




Jules Leonard. 
After Rembrandt. 



REVIVAL IN FRANCE 

seems always half blague. He, with so many others, has made posters and 
book covers — notably the cover for M. Arsene Alexandre's L'Art du Rire 
et de la Caricature. He has figured in most of the lithographic publications 
of the day, from UEstampe Originale. He makes his yearly appearance in 
the dull precincts of the Old Salon, and with his lithographed political cartoons 
inundates Paris at almost every general election, in which he is usually an 
unsuccessful candidate. 

M. Dillon, too, is true to the Old Salon, though, like M. VVillette, he 
would seem more at home, more in his right place, in the rival exhibition. 
His work is in strong contrast to Willette's. Instead of silvery greys, it is 
full of intense blacks, almost violent in their intensity. He likes to show a 
sudden glare, a sudden play of light in the midst of darkness, he delights 
in the startling illumination of the circus, the theatre, of the merry-go-round 
turning in the circle of flaring lamps among the shadows of a garden at 
night. It is extraordinary what different qualities and effects are sought 
in lithography by the men who are practising the art to-day. Many of 
Dillon's drawings have been produced with so artless a tool as the splatter 
brush, proving that by an artist even that lithographic trade adjunct can be 
made good use of, as Senefelder pointed out. M. Lepere is another artist- 
lithographer who prefers strong rich effects, but he obtains them in a different 
way. He does not find them at night, but in broad daylight, in the move- 
ment and traffic of Paris through the streets and on the river. His work has 
been mainly on wood or in etching. But in his lithographs he is as personal, 
both in his way of looking at things and of expressing them. He has 
attempted colour with admirable results. Jean Veber's lithographs add a note 
of gaiety to the walls of the New Salon, which have been growing sober and 
sedate with years. Technically they are able but with no special character. 
Their interest lies rather in the subject and in the amusing arrangement the 
artist gets out of his grotesque little figures and their grotesque little per- 
formances, his lithographs in this respect resembling his paintings. 

M. Odilon Redon and M. Auguste Roedel, M. Henri de Groux, a Belgian, 
and M. Georges d'Espagnat, the last of whom and M. Signac, as well as 
Matisse, have joined the Post-Impressionists, were the outcome of the Rose 
Croix, of the wave of mysticism that for a year or two swept over the two 
Salons — a mysticism which in Modern France is as affected a growth as 
medisevalism was in 1830, and has now developed with the technical formula 
of the Futurist and the Cubist. But the stone was made for the mystic. 
There is no medium which lends itself so readily to the suggestion of the 
mystery, the vagueness, the indefinite form in which Redon especially delights. 
And lithography lends itself with equal ease to the technique of the Post- 
Impressionist, the Pountillist, or any other isl. The Impressionists, Post- 
Impressionists, Cubists, and Futurists have tried their hands at lithography — 

177 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

but of them all the work of Pisarro seems the best worth remembering. 
His views of Paris have little lithographic quality — but his technique is excel- 
lent. Signac and the rest preserve their handling — or mannerisms rather — 
without any difficulty. And if it is worth their while, or their managers' 
while, they will all display themselves in lithography and the future will judge 
of their importance. But, if they are important, Daumier is of no importance. 

Boutet de Mourel, M. Denis, Riviere, and many besides, make most amusing 
use of colour. A few, with Charpentier and Roche, have devised a process of 
stamping or giving relief to their designs which they call Liihographie Gaufr^e, 
effective for book covers. But year by year the Salons show some new 
experiment, some new device, sometimes to be remembered and adopted, 
sometimes to be thrown aside and forgotten ; though of interest, as a proof of 
the life infused into the art within the last ten years. 

There is still another group — the painters whose occasional prints are no 
less noteworthy historically, often more noteworthy artistically, than the pro- 
ductions of their predecessors who experimented for Senefelder, Lasteyrie, and 
Engelmann. Degas is of the number, working on paper, and attracted before 
to be attracted became the fashion, his programme for the Ancieiis Eleves du 
Lycde de Nantes having been done in this medium in 1884. A notable series 
of his drawings were lithographed some years ago by a Mr. Thornton, or 
Thornley, an Englishman, published by Goupil, but in such a limited edition 
that they have all disappeared. Carriere figured with distinction in L' Estampe 
Originate, and at the New Salon. His lithographs are exactly like his 
paintings. The charm of a face is veiled or revealed by the atmosphere 
with which he fills his canvas. The lithographs of Besnard attract or repel 
by the same quality as his paintings, but it is a surprise to find him Maeter- 
linckian in subject ; in a print for M. Marty, Death knocks a grim summons 
in the shadows of the doorway, while beyond the light falls gaily on a dinner 
table and a woman in evening gown who sits at the head. The lithographs 
of Puvis de Chavannes are like his drawings, done in the same way with 
virtually the same materials. And so, again, M. Raffaelli does not vary his 
method because he changes his tools. The same women you have seen in the 
portraits of M. Gandara, M. Blanche, and M. Belleroche reappear in their 
lithographs, their very handiwork with the brush imitated with the chalk, though 
Belleroche has done a great deal more in lithography than any of them and 
usually prints his own designs. M. Poitelin gives the same landscape on stone 
as on canvas. To be brief, in the hands of a painter, or a draughtsman 
lithography is a responsive medium that multiplies originals. And for an 
accomplished illustrator, M. Paul Renouard, lithography presents no technical 
difficulties. Some illustrators and engravers, M. Jeanniot, and some painters, 
M. E. Dinet, are more enterprising, and work on the stone in colour, M. 
Jeanniot having already carried out the same experiments successfully on 

178 




J.»;i\jt.->,Ct.«?/LO' 



'jLi/tjt-Uf: 



T. A. Steinlen : En Greve. 



REVIVAL IN FRANCE 

copper ; while men who, Hke Felix Buhot, distinguished themselves as 
etchers, did not lose in vivacity and realization of character when the stone 
or paper was substituted for the copper-plate. Buhot's portrait of his son 
and his impressions of London are as fresh and individual as his etchings. 
M. Robida in La Vieille France used lithography for nearly all the full-page 
drawings, and, apparently, in the smaller illustrations for this book he drew 
with lithographic chalk on zinc and had the design bitten in as in a process 
block. Dumont, Louis Leorand, and Steinlen in the Coiirrier Francais and 
other publications did exactly the same thing. Had pulls been made from 
these drawings before they were etched they would have been of the greatest 
value. Many were remarkable works of art which have now disappeared. 

It can scarcely be said that in France there has been a genuine 
revival : it has been a genuine continuance, though besides Lunois the only 
artists who have gained an international reputation for themselves in litho- 
graphy are Lautrec and Leandre, who, when not making satires, draws beautiful 
women of the Empire as memorable as his terrific caricatures of the politicians 
of to-day. But in every direction, in commercial lithography and in artistic 
lithography, there has been progress. The average is as high as in the 
flourishino- davs of the art, and there are a few masters of distinction as well 
as many artists of real talent or astonishing" cleverness. If the quantity of 
prints produced is less, it is because the conditions have changed. Litho- 
graphy is no longer the cheapest and quickest, and therefore the usual, 
method of illustration for papers and magazines. Nor can the old conditions 
ever again be revived. But that lithography has nevertheless a great future, 
as it has had a great past, its present healthy vitality in France seems to 
be a Guarantee. 



i8i 




■ ' lisqEq no rtWKiQ 



H. Fantin-Latour : Idyl. 
Drawn on papei> 



THE SPREAD 
OF THE ART 




J. F. Millet : The Sower. 



THE SPREAD 
OF THE ART 



CHAPTER Vn 

IN Germany, the publication, in 1808, of the Missal of Maximilian fixed 
the character of lithography for years as a reproductive, not an original, 
art. From that day until recently, the German artist who practised 
original lithography was the exception. Germany produced few rivals to 
the caricaturists and illustrators of France, or the architectural draughtsmen 
and portraitists of England. The advantage of the art, as the cheapest, 
speediest, and most direct method of reproducing paintings and drawings, was 
realized just when the work of the Old Masters began to interest the 
German, and in the reproduction of Royal and private collections he found a 
sound, useful end to which lithography could be applied. All the presses, 
not irreclaimably commercial, undertook this task, and the art in Germany 
became as serious and often laboured as in France it was gay and spontaneous. 

Senefelder's brothers, Theobald and Clement, in 181 7, copied the Turnier 
Buck Herzogs IVilhelin des Vierton von Bayern, von 15 10 bis 1545, after a 
contemporary MS. in the Royal Library at Munich, representing a curious 
succession of combats and tournaments, which they reproduced in outline, and 
then coloured gorgeously by hand, with decorations in gold and silver. 
But they had less infiuence, and were less enterprising than Van Mannlich 
and Zeller, who were the successors of Senefelder and Aretin and continued 
the traditions of the firm. In 181 8 appeared the book of Cranach's 
drawings, Ein Nachtrag zti Albrecht DiiTers Christlich Mythologischen Hand- 
zeichnungen, with the designs lithographed in line and printed in colour, two 
colours, red and green, being used in one print. Drawings and studies by 
the Old Masters were copied, and. Van Mannlich as director of the Royal 
Gallery having every facility, pictures also were reproduced. All these 
enterprises it is pleasant to know met the approval of Senefelder. " By this 
work " he thought that Van Mannlich had " greatly raised the value and 
reputation of lithography," and in his book he expressed his "grateful 
acknowledgments." The public was pleased too, for during thirty or forty 
years one huge collection followed another in the chief German cities, and 
these Galleries or Portfolios are the record of the growth of the art in 
Germany. 

The Munich publications set the example and the standard. Where the 
photographer now goes with his camera the artist went with his stone or 

189 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

paper, and the Kdniglich Bairischer Gemd/cie-Saal zu Miinchen unci 
Sckiei/sheiin, the Geindlde der Pinakothek, the Gemii/de der Bj'ilder Boisserde 
were the result. These pubHcations extended over twenty-two years, 1817 to 
1839. The prints were issued in huge foHos, sometimes appearing in separate 
numbers or parts. The drawings were in chalk, frequently printed from two 
stones, with a tint, the effect heightened by whites, sometimes worked up by 
hand ; and they were as elaborate, as finished, as thorough as the Germans 
could make them. The work of two or three men stands out with the dis- 
tinction of the pictures they copied. Stri.xner and Piloty were masters of the 
art ; not original masters, but ranking in reproductive lithography with artists 
like Mr. Hole and M. Waltner in reproductive etching. Strixner did an 
incredible number of lithographs, and found time also to direct the publication 
of the Boisseree Gallery. He was so proficient technically that he could 
render with equal ease the lines of Diirer, the severity and naive stiff- 
ness of the primitive painters, and the colour and animation of the Flemings. 
Piloty was as accomplished. He could suggest the splendour of Rubens, 
the stateliness of Van Dyck, and the movement of Snyders in a picture like 
the Boar Hunt. His copies of Murillo's old woman and of Zurbaran's monk 
with a skull hold their own to-day with the most skilful engravings. His 
interest in lithography was practical enough for him to start a press in 
partnership with Lohle, and the house of Piloty anci Lohle is, or was until 
recently, well known throughout Germany. It was he who undertook the 
charge of the Leuchtenberg Gallery,^ and among his other publications 
he brought out a large print by J. Woelffle of Wilkie's Reading the Will 
in the Munich Gallery. Two other men who made their mark are Laurence 
and Dominic Ouaglio. The interpretations of Terburg and De Hooghe 
retain the light and atmosphere and quality of the originals, and the copies 
of his own pictures of architectural subjects by Dominic have character. 

But for the best work you must go to the Dresden Gallery- (1835-52). 
There is nothing of the kind to compare with the prints signed Franz 
Hanfstangl. Hanfstanel was the friend of Senefelder and had studied with 
Mitterer in Munich so well that he surpassed Strixner and Piloty, even as they 
surpassed the other reproductive lithographers. Hohe, Markendorf, and 
Straub were his associates, and Adolf Menzel, who started as a professional 
lithoo-rapher, and with whom German artistic lithography begins, made seven 
plates as tailpieces, copying Correggio, Titian, Carlo Dolci, Netscher, Wouver- 
mann, Raphael, and Mieris. These Galleries are monumental works, the 
perfection of complete and finished lithography, and have never been 
approached to this day. Many of the prints may not preserve the hand- 

^ Aiisicaht tier vorsiiglii listen Gemiilde der licrsoglichcn Leuclitenbergischcn Geiiu'ihic-Galerie, 
herauigegeben von der LUcrarisch-Artistischen Anstall von F. G. Colta. 
" Die vorziiglichsten Gemiilde der Koniglichen Galerie in Dresden. 

190 




< 
Q 

(d 
X 
H 

a. 

M 

z 

u 
a 
O 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

work of the painter, and are mechanical, but they are as good as the best 
reproductive etchings. 

The Diisseldorfer Monathefte, illustrated by lithography somewhat on 
the lines of Le Charivari, was founded at Dusseldorf in 1847, and the Diissel- 
dorfer Kiinstler-Albiwi, modelled upon U Artiste, in 1851 ; both printed by Arnz 
& Co. The Monathefte published illustrations in the text and cartoons, and 
it was so faithful to the P'rench comic sheet as to borrow its well-worn 
subjects and ridicule Louis-Philippe. The Album, begun when its French 
model, as far as lithography is concerned, was in its decline, ran for a 
few years. Most of the lithographs are after the drawings of other artists, 
and seldom compare to similar work in L' Artiste. Now and then you come 
upon a pleasant landscape or a fine brisk sea, sketched boldly in chalk 
by Achenbach. But the average is not stimulating, and chromo-Iithography, 
used from the start, grows more and more elaborate and pretentious, until, in 
the sixties, the Album degenerates to the level of the Christmas supplement. 

Many other publications might be recalled. From the time of Mitterer, 
scientific books had been illustrated by lithographs ; for example, the 
zoological works which Joseph Wolf did before he left Germany, in 
1848, for England. The many efforts to imitate steel engraving, copies in 
outline by the old classicists, of pictures and drawings, might also be 
enumerated. But it is more important to point out that the artistic tradition 
and practice of original lithography were preserved and handed down by 
one man, the greatest of modern Germans ; that of the story of original 
lithography in Germany, from the death of Senefelder until the present, 
there would be little to tell if it were not for Adolf Menzel. He is the link 
between the old and the new. Born in 1815, some of his earliest and 
latest work was on stone. His father having set up a press in Berlin, 
before 1833 he was following lithography as a trade, supplying the shop 
with advertisements, and price lists, and drawings of machinery, and title- 
pages for music, the usual commercial lithograph of the time. His first original 
lithographs, brought out in 1834, were pen-and-ink drawings representing the 
vicissitudes of a painter's life, illustrating Goethe's poem Kiinstlers Erden- 
wallen, with an afterword or moral, and a title which is a fine specimen of that 
wonderful medley of conventional swirls, traditional symbols, and realistic figures 
so beloved by the bygone German, that not even Menzel could emancipate 
himself from it. The successive scenes in the artist's life, from his appearance 
as a boy about to be thrashed for drawing on the floor, to his triumph as the 
popular painter receiving his patrons, are rendered realistically, though each 
has below a funny little symbol of the age represented. This was the first 
time that a German artist used stone for a record of the life he knew, of 
the scenes and costumes and incidents with which he was familiar ; in a word, 
for the purposes lithography so well served in France. But these drawings 

193 H 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

are very boyish, and would never have made his reputation. Some authorities, 
writing of Menzel, have forgotten Strixner and Piloty and Hanfstangl, and 
proclaimed him, as a reproductive lithographer, the first countryman of Senefelder 
to give the art distinction in its native land. 

Next, in 1S34, came his Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der BTundenbiirgisch- 
Preussischen Geschichte, a series of lithographs in chalk of incidents in 
Prussian history, showing the knowledge of costume and grasp of character 
that he perfected in his history of Frederick the Great drawn on wood. 
In 1839 and 1840 he was at work for Hanfstangl; and then followed the 
chief series of all, the Costumes of the Army of Frederick the Great — Die 
Amide Friedrichs des Grosscn in ihrer Unifo7'miernng : Berlin, 1851-1857, 
printed from stone, text and all, by L. Sachse & Co. Only thirty copies 
of these amazing drawings were published. They were in pen and ink and 
coloured, and represent officers and privates of each regiment in the service. 
Though they are fashion plates, and though many of the figures are 
repeated over and over again with only slight changes in the colour or cut 
of a coat, almost each one is doing somethingf, each one is instinct with 
life or action. The three volumes are the work of Menzel's own hand, 
except perhaps the explanatory text, which is also lithographed, and they 
are well worth studying from the title-page, which, as in most German books, 
is bad, to the tailpiece, the drawing of the skeleton of a soldier who has 
perished in the wilderness. 

Besides these, Menzel drew several separate plates, either published 
in portfolios like his Sketches on Stone, or as single pictures like the 
Christ in the Temple. His technical interest led him in 1851 to his 
Versuche auf Stein mit Pinsel nnd Schabeisen — Attempts on the Stone tvith the 
Brush and Graver. This is a series of drawings macie, as the title says, in 
various ways, and it proves that he was as accomplished in his knowledge 
of the methods of working on stone as any of the other graphic arts. The 
drawings are of many subjects ; a bear-pit, an army on the march in the 
rain, and a garden are the most notable. Pen, chalk, wash, and scraping may 
be found in each print. Menzel's other subjects were borrowed, now from 
the present, from the Boulevards of Paris or the Carnival of Berlin ; now 
from the past, from scenes in the life of Albert Diirer, or of Luther, or of 
Christ ; none more striking than his Christ in the Temple, a very large print, 
as extraordinary for its study of tone as for its realization of Jewish types. 
These same men who, as Doctors of the Law, crowd about the Divine Child, 
may be met sunning themselves in the streets of Karlsbad, gliding silently 
through Whitechapel, or haggling in the markets of New York. Menzel, 
who was working during the lifetime of Senefelder, worked almost till 
today, showing how short is the history of lithography. It is he who alone 
carried on the art in Germany, practising it in the days of its first popu- 

194 



Msmki) ihT I a3S-<?aM nov ^ 



T.TTHOGRAPfr 



HOGRAPHERS 



cry uuy.bn, and wouM ri- 



ng of Mr.- -' 1. 
aimed hi?ri 
ihe ar; 



'(^putation. Some auihorities, 
i'i^oty and Hanfstangl, and 

( (•iintrx'maii nf S. nr-fplder 



/r?r BraHdenbu7'ghch- 

ilk of incidents in 

" jracter 



' ' Great — Die 

/, 1851-1857, 
P''"' rty copies 

<^' ' ■ ere HI '".k and 

coioui^v.. ,,:,.. ; V. p. I. ji.111. v-,iin..-, ^iiui iiii\<ii. -. 'j: <.,n.,y re*2'inieia m , ■■,-^, 

Thnsjch x\\f\ arr- fashion platen, and th.^noh m.-mv of tJie t;_^ 

' n!f)ur or cut 
ith 



cuid tiiey 

" .'.".. it' i. „„„ ,. ^ „ ■1-' '1 .>■'■-. viLiinan books, 

- ^ A. VON Menzel : The Garden. 

ihe tailpiece, thr- ( .. trton of a soldier who has 

perished in the wilder! 

Besides these, Menzel drc ai separate plates, either published 

in portfolias 1; Sketches on :>tonc, or as single pictures like the 

- U. His I ' 1 interest led him in 1851 to his 

' ^■■■■■■'■■' ''en — Attempts on the Stone with the 



I'.'.in'vc; rn;i(Ir :'i« 



dr 



(!,• -''■■ ..,;.■, in 



— Boulevards of Paris • r » 
from the past, from scenes in the life nf 



to d.i 
carried 



ihe 

; may 

trom 

, ..ii ; now 

i-uther, or of 

very large print, 

'/I of Jewish types. 

■Lit the Divine Child, 

ix.ulsbad, gliding silently 

of New York. Menzel, 

itilder, worked almost till 

_' nil), it is he who alone 

en the days of its first popu- 



t***-** 




.s>^, i 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

larity, and living to see a resurrection of it — or rather, he lived to see it 
become the living original art it became through him in his own country. 

For at last, after a long century, the German artist is beginning to 
appreciate the resources of lithography, and to use it as a means of multi- 
plying his original designs, Menzel having pointed out the way. The new 
vitality of the art is also due partly to France. If it had not been for 
L' Estampe Originale and other publications of the kind, we might not have 
had Pan or Jiigcnd, the clever weekly published at Munich, that gives 
many reproductions of original lithographs as well as illustrations with 
a more or less lithographic basis. But the younger Germans, wherever 
they derived their inspiration, have not allowed their debt to others to 
suppress their individuality, and of late some of the most interesting 
lithographs technically have been made in Germany and Austria. For a 
while there was a fashion for Pre-Raphaelitism, just as there was before for 
classicism, and it influenced the work of even so strong an artist as Hans 
Thoma. One mav wearv a little of the mvsticism that has guided him in 
the choice and treatment of his subjects. But Thoma can draw, and most 
of the modern mystics cannot, their mysticism being a cloak to hide technical 
defects. He is a genuine primitive, but whether the resurrection of the 
technical shortcomings of the primitives is the highest form of art the future 
must decide. Much of Thomas work, though done with chalk, is in line, 
and suggests the woodcuts of Durer. Often it is printed with a tint or in 
colour. Sometimes his subjects recall Millet. Lately he has been much 
taken up with the modern religious picture and lithograph. 

So, too, have Steinhausen and the others of the group. Indeed, 
Steinhausen seems a close student of Thoma, or it may be that, as they 
both live in Frankfort, they work so much together that they have identified 
their aims and methods. The Healing of the Blind, the Journey to Einmaiis, 
are characteristic themes for which Steinhausen often finds a landscape 
background full of poetic feeling. He works much in pen and ink and 
prints his lithographs with a tint, an effective method. Max Dasio, the 
Munich painter, is another who has turned to religion for motives, borrowing 
the hero of the early Italian painters, St. Sebastian, but treating his 
martyrdom in a romantic spirit that has nothing in common with the 
primitiveness of Thoma and Steinhausen. It is curious that few women 
have taken up lithography, considering how little technical difficulty there is 
about it. One of the few is Frau Kollwitz, of Berlin, who began with Pre- 
Raphaelite compositions, who in feeling was closely allied to Thoma and 
Greiner, and who has now evolved subjects and methods of her own of great 
interest, though she seems to think almost as much of preaching sermons as 
of making prints. But they are very well done, and she is the most brilliant 
woman who has practised lithography. 

197 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

Otto Greiner, a follower of Klinger — Klinger's work is almost altogether 
in etching — in his lithographs, done usually with a pen, was for a while 
almost altogether classic'; now he might be better described as a realist. He 
and A. Frenz, a Diisseldorf artist, whose subjects are not unlike Greiner's, 
might be called prophets of the ugly, so realistic is their rendering of the 
model, who, as often happens in Germany, seems chosen deliberately for 
coarseness, or brutality, or homeliness of type. But their composition is 
often fine, and at times decorative in the right sense. Both have character, a 
strong personality. Greiner continues his work and varies it with portraits. 
He is a master of his craft, but he rarely any longer lithographs the charming 
decorative designs that were his motives a few years ago. His later designs 
are mostly studies of models. 

Otto Fischer, with his landscapes, Fechner, with his portraits, Unger 
are all three lithographers of note. A few painters, like Max Liebermann, 
produce an occasional print, just as French painters, like Carriere or Puvis 
de Chavannes, occasionally worked on stone or paper. Two great achieve- 
ments of modern lithography in Germany are the excellence of the portraits, 
chiefiy by Fechner, Gentz, and Kalckreuth, and the beauty of the colour work. 
This has absolutely nothing in common with the chromo-lithography of 
commerce. The colour is at times produced by using one or two different- 
coloured inks on a tinted paper, a favourite device which gives the effect 
almost of a pastel drawing. One of the most successful men to practise 
this method was the late Carlos Grethe. Another method is by printing in 
flat tones somewhat in the manner of the Japanese wood-engraver, and 
wonderful prints have been the result. That German artists have of late 
devoted themselves more and more to lithography and are doing most 
accomplished work in it, is owing mainly to two reasons. First, to the use 
of aluminium plates, which a (ew years ago were developed by a German 
firm who controlled the patents and supplied the artists not only in Germany, 
but in other countries, with the plates and with chalk. Many artists of 
eminence tried them and, finding that they presented no difficulty, made a 
number of drawings, usually with flat colour tones added. The second reason 
for the revival in Germany was the formation of a society of artists whose 
object was the publication of prints for schools and the Pan Press, the out- 
come of the Pan magazine, in which lithographs were printed. The prints are 
now seen all over the world, and are at times of great artistic merit and technical 
skill. As no special training is necessary, there are many artists who practise 
lithography only occasionally. One of the most admirable craftsmen is Carl 
Kappstein, whose print of the Capuchin Catacombs, if uncanny, is a striking 
example of drawing and printing. Helen Lange's flower studies in lithography 
are of the utmost refinement and delicacy and ought to be better known. And 
numerous other artists, men and women, are working on stone and paper in 

198 




Otto Fischer : In the Wood. 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

Germany with ability and cleverness, but hardly with sufficient individuality 
to make the recording of their names more than a catalogue. At the 
Leipzig Exhibition of the Graphic Arts in 1914 a careful survey of the German 
section, though there were many brilliant technicians in it, did not reveal 
the work of a single new artist of eminence. Sir Hubert von Herkomer 
was not easy to classify nationally. But as, in his recent excursions into 
lithography, he imported a German press and printer, he may be included 
with the Germans. He made within the last few years a series of experi- 
ments, chiefly in copying his own paintings : apparently covering his plate 
with a bitumen or ink ground — as is usual, there was some secret about 
it — and scraping or scratching or working upon it with mezzotint tools. He 
in this way obtained remarkable reproductions of his pictures, notably 
the Chelsea Pensioners and some of the portraits. But it must be said that 
they have more the look of photogravures than of lithographs. He has 
shown some other heads and portraits done from life or from studies, but 
they seem more like reproductions than original works of art. It would be 
easy to give a long list of German, Austrian, and Hungarian names, but 
without examples — they would convey nothing — and many of these younger 
men are so in search of some new thing, or some popular thing, that they 
rush from Beardsley to Boecklin — forgetting that it is at times a good thing 
to say something for one's self in one's own way. 

Among the earliest colour lithographers was Josef Lancedelly, an Austrian, 
whose Fair in Transylvania was an elaborate and memorable design. 
Lancedelly is almost the only Austrian or Hungarian whose work and name 
are remembered. When Wilkie was in Vienna in 1840 he wrote : " I see 
but litde done here in engraving, except in lithography." Unfortunately, he 
did not say what he did see. Albums were published, but none that survive 
unless the archives are searched for them. 

In Austria and Hungary the State now does much to encourage the 
graphic arts, and in the schools and museums of the more important cities 
good work has been done, though less in lithography than in etching and 
wood-cutting. In colour printing the Austrians have some very notable artists, 
but none who, in the large international exhibitions, as at St. Louis, Venice, 
Rome, and Leipzig, could overshadow the exhibitors of other nationalities. 
They are brilliant but not really distinguished. This is the more surprising 
because their country has been a leader, not only in schools, but in exhibitions 
and publications. One of the first of the modern lithographic shows was 
held in the Viennese Industrial Museum in 1894, when Frenz, Thoma, 
Steinhausen, and Otto Greiner exhibited. In the same year a volume of 
Neue Lithograpliien was issued in Vienna, devoted to the work of Greiner, 
Thoma, Von Pidoll, Steinhausen and Dasio. But almost all these men are 
Germans. The Government has published albums of examples of modern 

201 11* 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

work which are excellent. There is a private society for publishing prints 
which issues lithographs, principally the work of foreigners, Der Gesellschaft 
flir Vervielfaltigende Kunst, and though there seems to be great enthusiasm for 
the graphic arts, there are no great graphic artists. The best known Austrian 
is Emil Orlik, but his work has been mostly in colour printing and etching. 
Manv lithographed books are issued from Russian presses — and there was a 
special sort of offset press, the Orloff, which was to revolutionize the art, but 
it scarce did so. 

The record of Belgium and Holland is only a little less empty. During 
Senefelder's lifetime lithographic presses were at work in Belgium. The first 
was due to Jean Baptiste Jobard, a scientist, interested in new inventions. 
Another of the early lithographers was Barriere, also a Frenchman, who knew 
something of lithography, picked up in Paris. He got a second-hand press 
from Jobard about 1820, and began at Tournai to print and issue Picttn'esgue 
Vicivs of Belgiiuii. Louis Haghe, through his father, who was an architect, 
got to know Barriere, and accompanied him to seek material for the Picturesque 
Vieivs, in which he collaborated. But in 1S23, having learned what he could, 
Haghe came to England and is to be classed with English lithographers, 
just as Felicien Rops is associated with the record of lithography in Paris. 
Series of portraits were made by Eckout and Verboekhoven, and published 
by Burggraaf and Dewasmes, between 18 18 and 1830. Then, in 1828, Joseph 
Dionisius Odevaere and a little group of artists designed their Pastes 
Belgiqucs ; Galcric /ithographu'c dcs principaiix Actes cT Hcroisnic civil ct 
militairc. By 1829 the fame of the German Gallery portfolios induced the 
Prince d'Arenberg to allow a series of reproductions to be made of his 
pictures : Lithographies cCaprcs les Principaux Tableaux de la Collection de 
S.A.S. Monseigncur le Prince Atiguste d'Aroiberg, avec le catalogue descriptif. 
It is on a smaller and less extravagant scale than the German Galleries, and 
the lithographs have less merit. The only prints with character are by 
Spruyt, the custodian of the Prince's Gallery and the publisher of the port- 
folio. He never gives the quality of the painter he is reproducing, whether 
this be Franz Hals or Cuyp, but his use of chalk is free and individual 
compared to the tame, tight technique of the others. JNIadou here is poor, 
though he and Lauters were probably the best known Belgian lithographers 
out of their own country, both making an occasional appearance in L' Artiste, 
where amiable appreciations accompanied their prints. Madou published 
several albums, or series, the most characteristic being the Scenes de la 
Vie des Peintres de rEcole Flainande et Hollandaise (1S40). He had the 
sense to find his subjects at home ; his interiors and groups in composition 
are somewhat in the manner of Teniers and Van Ostade, while at times his 
use of chalk recalls Raffet. If Lauters found his landscapes in his own 
part of the world, he had less skill than Madou in their delineation. Some- 

202 




H. Ungek : Study Head. 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

times, in other publications, you come across lithographs tliat do not deserve 
to perish. For instance, tbe Belgian paper, Journal dcs Beaux-Arts ct de la 
Litidrature, though not illustrated, every now and then gave a print as a prize 
to its subscribers. One in the number for October 15, 1865, is a fine litho- 
graph, full of colour and elaborate treatment of beautiful detail, by H. Hymans 
after Le Liseur, by Baron Leys, who once or twice copied his own pictures. 
Other names can be mentioned, but they are nothing more than names 
to-day : Florimund van Loo, who reproduced the pictures of distinguished or 
popular painters, and Billoin, who copied Madou, and Schubert. It is not an 
impressive record, but at least demonstrates that Belgian artists have not been 
wholly idle in lithography. The greatest of all is Rops, who has been 
classed with the Frenchmen. Within the last few years noteworthy work has 
been done, undoubtedly due to the influence of Rops, though it is long since 
Henri de Groux introduced his uncanny fantasies, fine both in composition 
and technique. Fernand Khnopff also has used lithography for some of his 
mystic designs with great grace and force, though it is difficult to say how 
many of these drawings he has produced ; while Emil Claus has made studies 
of his own country which contain all the character of his paintings. More 
incentive, however, has been given to lithography and etching in Belgium than 
everywhere else on the Continent of Europe by the Salon dc l' Estampe Origi- 
nate, an exhibition which is annually held in Brussels and to which the better 
known lithographers of the world are annually invited to contribute. Each 
year usually one artist has been asked to exhibit a large selection of his work, 
and the result has been a growing interest in lithography and the graphic 
arts among Belgian artists and amateurs, and this must have eventually a 
verv beneficial effect. 

Dutch artists in 1828, with Madou to help them, did the Hague 
Gallery : Het Koninkliik JMuseum van s Gravenhage op steen gebragt. It was 
published from the house of Desguerrois & Co., of Amsterdam, in twenty 
parts, three prints in each, the last appearing in 1833 ; the text in Dutch and 
French. It is the most commonplace of all these collections. The names of 
the artists are forgotten. As '' Laborieux et infatigables" they were described 
in the text. Industry was the one virtue of the early Dutch lithographers. 
Now and then you may come across views of The Hague and similar series, 
published by Buffa, of Amsterdam, or Van Gogh, of The Hague. If they 
usually lie neglected on obscure bookshelves, they have but met their deserts. 

It is another matter to-day. The example set by France and England 
has been followed, and such painters as James Maris, Josef Israels, Ten 
Gate, Jan van Toroop have made lithographs. These are exactly like their 
paintings or drawings in other mediums, and possess no distinctive quality. 
But there are, besides, artists more essentially lithographers. In modern 
Dutch work no one is better known than Count Storm van 'sGravesande. 

205 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

His studies of wind-swept seas, Dutch harbours, and Venice are excellent 
personal records. These lithographs are all made upon the aluminium plates 
so much used in Germany, and they suit van 'sGravesande admirably. 
Though he is the artist whose name is most closely associated with these 
plates, the supposed inventor is M. Scholtz, of Mayence. But aluminium 
has merely been substituted for paper, zinc, or stone. There is nothing 
new in the method. Senefelder used zinc plates. So did Engelmann. Patents 
were taken out at various times for the substitution of metal. Whether stone 
or metal be used, the print is produced by chemical or surface printing, 
and this alone is lithography. Most of the principal modern work has 
appeared in De Kroniek, a weekly paper, with lithographic supplements. 
In it J. V. Veth published the portraits of Mesdag, Menzel, and others. 
The drawing of Menzel at work is a most convincing portrait of the 
German artist. It is severe in treatment, but the same severity marks all 
Veth's work, and is not ineffective. In contrast to it are the studies of female 
figures, mostly of women and children, by H. J. Haverman, tender in treat- 
ment, with that intensity of maternal feeling, an almost tragic intensity, that 
you find in Carriere's paintings of similar themes, combined with a soft silvery 
quality that is charming. The political cartoons are signed mostly by Van 
Hoytema, and by " Rusticus," which here stands for M. A. J. Bauer, who is 
described in the Grolier Club Catalogue'^ as a "contemporary Dutch artist of 
advanced tendencies," but of whom it is more true to say that he is one of 
the most distinguished of the moderns. Such of his lithographs as are not 
political have much in common with his etchings, in subject — now beautiful 
architecture, now a group of picturesque figures — and in treatment, the 
composition lost in the mystery which for him envelops the world. His 
line — and he works in line — does not define but conceals or veils his meaning. 
This mysterious element enters slightly into his cartoons, which have a 
largeness, a dignity, a romance that e.xists in the work of few other political 
caricaturists except Daumier, whom, it should be added, Bauer is altogether 
unlike in technique and temperament. His L^gende de St. Julien r Hospitalier, 
ten lithographs illustrating Flaubert, was published at The Hague in 1891 in 
an edition limited to twenty copies. His most important design in lithography 
is the study of The Sphinx, grim, silent, and impressive, issued some years ago. 
At the present time he seems to confine himself almost altogether to etching. 
Van Hoytema has another and more interesting side to his art in his studies 
of animals. Technically these are masterpieces. His monkeys show great 
observation, while his famous rabbits and birds, worked from black to white 
and printed in relief, are technically as extraordinary and are models of 
observation. There is no doubt, however, that in Holland to-day, besides the 

' Catalogue of an Exhibition lUuitralive of a Centenary of Artistic Lithographv. New York: 
1896. 

206 




Kathie KoLLwnz ; Workwoman. 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

work of these men, there is little original graphic art or, for that matter, 
original art of any sort. The artists who made the modern artistic reputation 
of the country in oils and water-colours are mostly dead, and, save the artists 
named above, they have left few followers. 

Whether one of the family of Madrazo introduced lithography into Spain 
is not so important as the fact that some of the earliest Spanish lithographs 
are the work of the greatest modern Spanish artist, who very likely obtained 
his knowledge in France, though there were lithographers in Spain before 
Goya made his essays in the art. Lithographic printers in Spain followed 
quickly upon the first lithographic prosperity in Paris. Bruci was established 
at Barcelona in 1S20, the King, Ferdinand VII, set up a Royal press in 
Madrid, and by 1824 Madrazo was reproducing the Prado pictures. But 
however great the reproductive activity of the country, the glory of the art 
in .Spain belongs to Goya. His first known lithograph is a Peasant Spinning, 
dated Madrid, February, 18 19, and drawn with a pen. Fifteen others are 
ascribed to him by the authorities. The subjects are characteristic : cavaliers 
fighting a duel, a bull attacked by dogs, a gipsy dance ; this last in chalk, as 
badly printed as the early Spanish lithographers, unfortunately, knew how to 
print. Had Goya confined himself to these first efforts, he would have been 
a less powerful influence in lithography. Before his last work in the medium 
was done all artistic Paris had been excited by the series of caricatures 
published in 1824 by Motte, and now catalogued and collected in the Print 
Room of the British Museum as original Goyas. They are not signed. They 
are elaborated in a truly lithographic fashion in most complicated tones, while 
the single lines are weak just where Goya would be strong, so that it is 
evident they were copied or adapted from the Caprices by some other and 
lesser draughtsman. As a matter of fact, they came out of the Album of 1824 
called Caricatures Espagnoles. The name of the copyist is not given by 
Motte, but enough of Goya is left in the work to have inspired Delacroix to 
attempt lithography In the same style, and to have induced Boulanger to 
borrow figures wholesale. The series was obtained by the British Museum 
from an eminent French collector whose mark appears on the margin. The 
drawing of the Garrot Vil, owned by the British Museum, is not a drawing, 
but either a lithograph or some form of mechanical reproduction at which 
Goya was probably experimenting. In 1825 according to Beraldi, 1826 
according to Carderera, Goya, an exile at Bordeaux, made the series of four 
lithographs upon which his fame as a lithographer rests : the Bull Fights. He 
knew and loved the bull ring ; he felt the splendour of its drama as none but 
an artist ever will ; and he filled his lithographs with the colour and life of 
the corrida. The sun shines down upon the ring with its lurching bulls and 
quick-footed men, rich warm colour suffuses the shadows. It is not a pale 
memory of the gorgeous spectacle he has given, but the spectacle itself, 

209 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

shimmering with Hght and heat, brilliant with the brilliancy of the South. 
When you see these prints it is easy to understand the enthusiasm they have 
always aroused. To about the same period belongs the beautiful print of a 
man wearing decorations, a grey effect like his paintings, in the British 
Museum. It may be the portrait of Gaulon, the printer of the Bull Fights, 
described by M. Paul Lefort, who says that the effect was obtained by 
scraping the head out of a black background. This is not true of the print 
at the British Museum, though there is a little scraping in it. 

In the meanwhile the Royal Printing Establishment at Madrid was at 
work under the direction of Madrazo, and in 1826 the publication had been 
begun of the great gallery collection : Collcccion lithograpliica de CJiadros del 
Rey dc Espana el sefior D. Fernando V/I, lithographiada por habiles artistas. 
This was the publication that Wilkie, while in Spain in 1827, recommended 
to Sir Thomas Lawrence for the Royal Academy Library, as it then gave 
"the promise of a very comprehensive and elegant work." Many Spanish 
artists, whose names are unknown, drew for it. The best is Di Craene, whose 
copy of Murillo's St. Elizabeth of Hungary Washing the Beggars would be 
striking in any collection. His reproductions of Velasquez are surprisingly 
good, the Lances in particular being a masterly work for a day when there 
was no photography to aid the copyist. Lopez's print after the Young Philip 
in hunting dress, criticized as it may be in detail, retains much of the colour 
•and dignity and feeling of the original. And there is a delightful and spirited 
version of the little Don Balthasar Carlos on horseback, by Jollivet, a French- 
man. Still, there are no prints in it to surpass Hanfstangl's in the Dresden 
Gallery. There were a number of proofs of this collection printed on India 
paper, and they are infinitely better. Wilkie was right in urging the Academy 
to pay the extra sum for them. He found the impressions on plain paper 
worn from much printing. But, whatever the cause, many of the early 
lithographs printed at the Royal Establishment are full of white spots and 
feeble in colour. They were most probably over-etched. 

By 1837 there was a lithographic press in Seville, for which R. Blanchard 
made numerous drawings of the town, some lithographed by A. Daurat and 
printed by V. M. Cassajus, but these are of no merit. They were badly 
etched. In 1862 we come to almost the only other example of Spanish 
lithography : a magazine. El Arte en Espana, which published a number of 
drawings, copies of paintings in the style of E Artiste. The magazine ran 
for about three vears ; some of the original desia^ns bv Casado Unceto are 
not bad, but this is the highest praise that can be given them. Chromo- 
lithography has been practised in Spain by Lozano and Aranjo, who, as a 
copyist after Velasquez, is a worthy follower of the French. The lithographs 
were printed by Donon. The Iconograjia Espanola, the work of Valentin 
Carderera, the Spanish Court painter, was undertaken about i860 on an 

210 



&. 







M. A. J. Bauer : The Sphinx. 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

extensive scale. Its object was the record of historical portraits, statues, and 
monuments dating from the eleventh to the seventeenth century, and it was 
published in Madrid, London, and Paris. But, as was so often the case, the 
original artist's drawings were copied for him in lithography, by Jose de 
INIendoza, Blanco, Vallego, and others as insignificant. Besides, many of the 
lithographs were made and printed in Paris. Regamey's name occurs among 
the contributors. At the present time colour lithography is widely used in 
Spain for posters, which are the most gorgeous produced anywhere. Spain 
should have a large share in the credit of bringing about the development 
of the modern poster. Some of the huge designs for Bull Fights are 
genuinely effective. Long before any one thought of the designing of posters 
as a fine art, Spanish walls were covered with these open-air decorations. 
There is published in Ahidrid to-day, or was very lately, a journal of the 
bull-ring called La Lidia, illustrated almost entirely by D. Perea. For years 
the only lithographic weekly papers illustrated in colour — The St. Stephciis 
Revieiv is scarcely to be included in this list — have been Puck and Judge \\\ 
New York, which had politics for subjects, and the Lidia in Madrid, which 
found its motive, as Goya did, as many modern Frenchmen do, in bull-fighting. 
There may be lithographs by Fortuny, Rico, Vierge, or the other modern- 
Spaniards, but it is impossible to trace them. Indeed, to sum up, lithography 
in Spain begins with Goya, and ends with the Madrid Gallery. But if the 
country can boast but little, that little ranks with the noblest achievements 
of the art. 

The history of lithography in Italy has been written by Camillo Doyen, ' 
the son of a Frenchman born at Dijon, who was one of the first litho- 
graphers of Turin. The facts are of trivial importance artistically. There 
was no distinguished lithographer like Goya, no distinguished publication like 
Madrazo's Colleccion. The art was never popular as in France and England, 
never ambitious as in Germany. There were professional lithographers and 
lithographic presses, and commercial prosperity. And that is about all. 
Even to-day, little work is being done and accomplished in the art, though 
there are signs of an awakening. The distinguished Italian critic, Ugo 
Ojetti, in his review of the Venice E.xhibition, 19 12, regrets that Italy has 
done so little. There was, of course, the inevitable gallery in the early 
period, begun in the time of Felice Festa : Riproduzione dei Ouadri dclla 
Pinacoteca di S.M. il Re di Sardegna. But this did not prevent a similar 
enterprise being entrusted to the steel-engraver at almost the same period : 
La Galleria di Torino under the charge of D'Azeglio. There were several 
other large undertakings, such as views of castles, by Doyen & Co., and 
drawings of Sardinian uniforms, by Enrico Gonin. In modern times the art 

' Traiiaio di Litograjia, Slorico, Tconco, Pralico eJ Econoinico. Turin : Francesco Casanova, 
1877. 

21 ; 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

has been used by publishers like Ricordi, in the hands of Tito and Montalti, 
for the title-pages of music and for many posters. In fact Italian posters, 
especially for the international exhibitions of recent years, have been better 
designed, better coloured, and more effective than those of any other country. 
But the work has been in almost every case copied by professional litho- 
grapners from the studies and designs in colour of various artists, though for 
the inauguration of the Campanile at Venice, in 19 12, an original lithograph 
by Joseph Pennell was issued as a poster by the City of V^enice. It was 
printed by the Stabilimento di Dr. Chapuis, Bologna. But a revival is coming 
in Italy ; many of the younger artists are trying paper and stone, in the exhibitions 
at Rome and Venice space is given to lithography, lithographs are being collected, 
and at any time a great lithographer may appear in the Land of Great Art. 
Switzerland has produced one lithographer of distinction, Alexandre 
Calame. Mr. Atherton Curtis declares that, " among landscape lithographers, 
Calame is the only one whose genius can at all approach Harding's, the 
only one who can stand comparison with him from a practical as well as a 
technical point of view." But this means that Isabey, Paul Huet, Jules 
Dupre, Decamps, and Cattermole must be forgotten, or rather that landscape 
lithographers must be limited to lithographers like Haghe or Prout or Nash, 
who made a few good prints and a multitude of machines. Considered in 
this way, Calame holds a high place. The quality of his work is the more 
astonishing because of its quantity. He filled drawing-books ; he provided 
the "views" and "bits" dear to the tourist; he copied his own drawings 
and pictures — one hundred and eight lithographs are in this series alone. In 
many of these his pupil Terry did the mechanical work for him, sketched the 
original design on stone, and left it to Calame to work up the effect, often 
elaborate, the tone and colour carried as far as in his paintings, nothing 
suggested or hinted as in the landscapes of many of the Frenchmen. And 
it is surprising how in the small space, and in black and white, he could 
elaborate without sacrificinsr the feeline of bigrness. His mountains tower 
above the valley or lake, they rise range beyond range, until at last they 
rest like shadows on the horizon ; the torrent leaps down the wild precipice. 
His pictures are not as impressive as his prints. He exhibited in Paris, 
where he was well known, was medalled, and published many of his litho- 
graphs. From most countries where the art was slightly encouraged, the 
lithographer drifted in time to the French capital. Another Swiss, Karl 
Bodmer, who went to America and afterwards lithographed Indian subjects, 
J. F. Millet putting in the figures for him, is practically as French as 
Swiss. Louis Choris, Russian, learnt and practised the art in Paris. 
Lorenz Ekeman-Allesson, Swede, on the other hand, identified himself with 
Germany and was appointed director and professor of the lithographic estab- 
lishment at Stuttgart. Only the rare exception worked at home : Alexandre 

214 



^/^ 



m^^l^ 



m 






"-^^ // fx' ' 






//I \ I *• 






^^c 



H. J. Haverman : Mother and Child. 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

OrlovvskI, Russian, for example, who went for his subjects to the battle-field, 
where Charlet and Raffet had found theirs. Other isolated instances mieht be 
cited. But they do not make it any the less true that in most of the European 
countries lithography was never developed, never encouraged as an art. 

The history of lithography in America has never been written, or rather, 
when attempted, contradictory versions have been the result. But there is 
little history to record. Few of the lithographs published in the United States 
until recently are known internationally. Engelmann, who lived to see litho- 
graphic firms established in America, declared lithography there was solely 
commercial because there were no artists in the country. But this was not 
an e.xact statement then, and since there have been many artists in America 
who, before they became celebrated, started as commercial lithographers, and 
whose drawing for theatrical and circus posters bears evidence to their talent. 
The colour work of Mr. Pranw has dominated the countrv, and has a world- 
wide reputation. But lithography from the first, as pointed out in the Jotwnal 
of the Fi'ankliii Institute, was mainly inartistic ; the country was Hooded with 
poor designs wretchedly carried out, and work in black and white was deV'Oted 
chiefly to maps and plans. Gradually Senefelder's invention was monopolized by 
the cigar-box maker, the printer of theatrical posters, or the publisher of chromos 
and comic prints. The first lithograph published in America appeared in the 
Analectic Magazine for 1819. It was by Benjamin Otis of Philadelphia and 
signed " Benj. Otis, lithographic," and drawn upon American stone. It 
represents two boat-houses upon a river bank, and is not the one illustrated 
as No. 22 in the Grolier Club Catalogue, this being made by Bass Otis, 
another person evidently, but it is drawn in the same way and in the same 
stvle. In some records both are attributed to Bass Otis, but thev are too 
insignificant to be made a matter of dispute. In June, 1827, it was 
announced in the Journal of the Franklin Institute that a press was soon to 
be established In Philadelphia. Otis's drawing shows that one had been there 
for eight years, though the Franklin Institute knew nothing about it. The 
Journal acknowledged that presses had already been set up in Boston and 
New York, and gradually they were at work in all the larger cities. It is 
amusing, as proof of the conflicting testimony on the early American history, 
to find Engelmann attributing the introduction of lithography into the country 
to Barnett and Doolittle, of New York, in 1828, though a French official 
report refers to presses in the United States before the summer of 18 16. 
The Franklin Institute Journal printed a description of the art translated from 
the Journal des Connaissances published by Lasteyrie, who, as son-in-law of 
Lafayette, was an authority bound to be respected in America, and in this, 
transfer paper and " auto ink " are described, and Lasteyrie seems to have 
sent specimens of his work — drawings of two wrens — to the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts. In 1827 also the Franklin Institute offered a prize, 

217 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

a silver medal, " for the best specimen of lithography to be executed in the 
United States," and in 182S another silver medal was promised for the best 
specimen of stone found in the United States. The first must have been 
won by Rembrandt Peale, who declared that a large lithograph of his portrait 
of Washingfton obtained for him a silver medal at the Franklin Institute in 
1827, and also that he was one of the first to employ "this admirable method 
of multiplying drawings," his first attempts being "a head of Lord Byron and 
a female head from a work of Titian." These were done before 1828, in 
which year he left New York for Boston. The Washington is a fine piece 
of work, distinguished in drawing and with as much feeling for the medium 
as was shown in the best contemporary lithographs of France or Germany. 
Another of the earlier American painters, Thomas Cole, made a few litho- 
graphs, and so did his contemporary Thomas Doughty, a landscape painter, 
and a number of others beside whose names and whose work it would 
be useless to recall. 

Pendleton Brothers, of Boston, who printed some of Peale's designs, and 
who claim to have introduced the art into America, removed in 1829 to 
Philadelphia, and started an office under the name of Pendleton, Kearney and 
Childs. P. S. Duval, who orofanized the firm Lehmann and Duval, wrote a 
book about lithography of which there is no trace. He and a deaf man, 
named Albert Newsam, worked at portraits, chiefly of Philadelphia celebrities, 
which were good for the time. One of Bishop White, published in a report 
of the Pennsvlvania Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, and shown at the 
Grolier Club Exhibition in New York, drawn by Newsam and printed by 
Duval, is not without merit. 

But the first artist who did more than experiment was Professor Schussele, 
who is said to have studied lithography with Christophe Gabriel Guerin in 
Strasbourg, afterwards to have learned chromo-lithography with Engelmann 
and Graff In Paris, and to have done such admirable work in colour that he 
was commissioned to reproduce the pictures In the Gallery of Versailles for 
the series proposed by Louis- Philippe. The Revolution of 1848 put an end 
to this, and Schussele came to Philadelphia, worked with Duval, and is said 
to have introduced colour work Into America, and, remembering his relations 
with Engelmann, this seems likely. He designed title-pages to reports, drew 
portraits, and did much work besides, all of which brought him many medals. 
Till he was over eighty he taught drawing at the Pennsylvania Academy In 
Philadelphia. There were other Germans In Philadelphia who had a reputa- 
tion In their day as reproductive lithographers. One of the best known was 
Max Rosenthal. Among the American artists who worked In lithography about 
the sixties were John la Farge, who did one or two prints; William M. Hunt, 
whose Flower Girl shows a command of the medium he probably attained 
during his years of study in Paris; and Winslow Homer, who about 1S62 

218 



y V 



/tT 81 




Tresltnq ACHof'Lith AntM. 



Jan V. Veth : Portrait of A. von Menzel. 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

produced a portfolio called Campaign Sketches and other records of the Civil 
War, published by Prang & Co. Mr. L. Prang, who began as a lithographer 
in Boston in 1856, also issued a map of the seat of war that was a financial 
success, but has nothing to do with the Fine Arts. In 1S65, he says, he 
made the first reproduction in colour in America, after an oil painting by 
A. T. Bricher, and he also says he was the first to, use the word " chromo " as 
applied to the print produced by chromo-lithography which, however, had been 
patented in 1838, as already stated. About the same time the Philadelphia 
firm of Duval and Hunter published colour reproductions of the Phila- 
delphia painter James Hamilton's sea pieces, and several were thought of 
considerable e.\cellence. Napoleon Sarony had for many years a reputation 
as lithographer. His large prints show that he was skilful. The entire 
series of his work is fortunately owned by the Smithsonian Institution. It 
might be noted that he copied by lithography, for the American pirated 
edition of Ruskin's Modern Painters, the metal entjravings of the English 
edition. They can scarcely, however, be compared to the lithographs by 
Rosenthal, after the author's drawings. John Cheney was also known as 
a lithographer, but better as an engraver. James D. Smillie, in an 
autobiographical sketch given to S. R. Koehler, for The American Art 
Revieiv, in 1880, says that he did much at one time upon stone, but 
his works have disappeared. More memorable is H. F. P^arney's famous 
caricature, in 1S65, of the escape of Jefferson Davis, clothed in the dress 
of a woman, engaged in climbing a fence, and discovering himself by showing 
his trousers. But most of these men are forgotten as lithographers ; their 
work practically has perished. Many of the early American illustrators — men 
like F. O. C. Darley — indulged in lithography, but their prints also have 
disappeared except in a few cases. Darley's Scenes in Indian Life is 
remembered, and, better still, George Cadin's Indian work and Audubon's 
Birds in Julius Bien's re-issue of 1S60. But in the mass of books and 
periodicals illustrated by lithography during many years, in the series of 
" views " and portraits and caricatures and almost every conceivable subject, 
the fine or memorable print is rare. Many French as well as German 
lithographers came to the country, but they were not often of greater 
distinction than the American. 

Another purpose to which lithography was turned was the printing of 
newspaper Christmas supplements. These, however, were even worse than 
the holiday performances of the British printer. The great Cincinnati firm of 
Strobridge was a sort of cradle for many of the more distinguished younger 
American artists, who as journeymen lithographers received their first training. 
It is not easy to trace their individual designs, for names never appear upon 
the gorgeous, or rather gaudy, Barnum and Forepaugh posters, in which for a 
period Americans found most of their art. Later, Matt Morgan was one of 

221 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

the most popular lithographers in the country, but the value of his work was 
more political than artistic, and later still he formed the Strobridge, or some other 
Company and was swallowed up in it. The Neiv York Daily Graphic, the first 
illustrated daily paper that ran for any time, used ordinary lithography and photo- 
lithography to a large extent. This use of lithography in daily journalism was most 
remarkable, and in the history of the Press too little attention has been paid to 
a paper which, mechanically, is deserving of more study and recognition than it 
has received. Then a lithographic firm that must have been successful. Currier 
and Ives, devoted themselves to the publication of coloured comic sporting 
scenes and burlesque darkey life, and T. Worth probably drew hundreds, if 
not thousands, of comic racing and sporting subjects that at one time were 
in demand all over the country. These have since become the stock decora- 
tion of many barbers' shops and country taverns. They were e.xcruciatingly 
funny and equally artless. And later on came Puck, and Judge, and similar 
journals, which, in America, have usually relied upon lithography or a combination 
of lithography and process for their large illustrations. Max Kepler made a 
reputation for his political caricatures. There were occasional prints from 
Mr. Charles Parsons, who at one time chronicled many passing events in 
lithography ; and Thomas Moran, who, in lithographs like his Solitude and 
South Shore of Lake Superior, put on stone some of the bigness and grandeur 
of his too little known paintings ; and J. Foxcroft Cole, who issued a 
series of Pastorals. But their prints, like the earlier lithographs by artists, 
were exceptions. For years lithography in America, both artistically and 
commercially, was in the hands of companies and trusts, and the individual 
artist counted for little. 

The revival, from France and England, has just reached America. Even 
many collectors have still to learn to take pleasure in the art. Montague Marks 
and Mr. Curtis are among the exceptions. Nevertheless, it is an American 
who has brought about the modern artistic revival in the art, though he owes 
nothing In this matter to his country, most of whose lithographers would probably 
be the last to know what he has done : Whistler. Collectors and dealers have 
appreciated his work, but that is more because it is Whistler than lithography. 
Mr. Marks, who possessed a fine collection of French and German work, 
endeavoured some years ago to form a lithographic society in New York. He 
got a number of artists to meet at his house, and he supplied them with 
stones and chalk, and lithographs were made by J. C. Beckwith, Alden Weir, 
H. W. Ranger, F. Hopkinson Smith, J. Lauber, James G. Brown, Ruger 
Donoho, and Cleveland Coxe. But these were experiments, and, except for 
the works of H. W. Ranger, have little lithographic quality. Since then, 
Mr. Arthur B. Davies has tried the various methods of working on stone, or 
paper, and they should prove well adapted to his work. Mr. Albert E. 
Sterner has used lithography for portraits and paid much attention to the 




Storm van- s'Gravesande : Dutch P'ishixg Boats. 



THE SPREAD OF THE ART 

art, and lately he has made some excellent designs. Mr. C. A. Vanderhof 
has published some portraits, Mr. C. F. W. Mielatz has made a few 
lithographs of New York for the Society of Iconophiles, Miss Mary Cassatt 
in Paris has experimented at least once. Mr. Glackens, Mr. Ernest Haskell, 
Ozias Dodge, who has collected his prints in an exhibition, Glenn Hinshaw, 
and others have been experimenting. But still it is true that, up to the 
present day, lithography may scarcely be said to have existed as an art in 
the United States. On the other hand, the American Lithographic Company, 
the Strobridge Company, Mr. Prang, and Mr. Hart maintain that nothing 
accomplished anywhere in the world approaches their work in colour, developed 
from the earlier chromo-lithography of Max Rosenthal, Christian Schussele, and 
Julius Bien. It may be magnificent, but it cannot be dealt with here, any 
more than the equally fine work of Lemercier in Paris or Griggs in London. 
Either this book had to be confined to lithography as a means of individual 
artistic expression, or become a record of commercial triumphs, a subject far 
beyond its limits. In 191 2 Joseph Pennell made a series of drawings of the 
Panama Canal on paper, taking the paper that he had purchased in 
London to the Isthmus, making the drawings there, and bringing them back 
to Philadelphia. There was not a lithographer in Europe or America who did 
not say that the artist's drawings would be ruined when put on the stone at 
the end of such a journey. After an experience with the Trust, the American 
Lithographic Company, that refused to have anything to do with him or his 
drawings, Mr. Pennell took them to the firm of Ketterlinus, in Philadelphia, 
in whose shop he found a printer, Mr. J. Gregor, who had worked in the 
same Berlin office as Menzel. Mr. Gregor, under Mr. Pennell's direction, 
put every one of the drawings on stone, and not only this, he kept the 
originals, as will be explained in the technical chapters. Mr. Pennell's litho- 
graphs of Philadelphia were also printed by Ketterlinus. And within the 
last year there has been a considerable revival of interest in lithography, 
owing to this, by artists like McCarter and Sterner, though there is not much 
yet to show for it. 



225 




J. Maris : Dutch Church. 



TECHNICAL AND CRITICAL 
INTRODUCTION 







V '%.\>- 



>-^- 






Sy'^ 



^'^mfxf 






Francisco Goya : The Bull Fight. 



TECHNICAL AND CRITICAL 
INTRODUCTION 



M 



CHAPTER VIII 

ANY myths have gathered around the story of Senefelder, but 
not one is so full of mystery and secrecy as that of the art 
of lithography itself. The mystery is so profound that an 
apprenticeship alone is thought to prepare one to comprehend it. 
The secrets are so precious that nothing but trade unions are believed to be 
able to guard and protect them. 

To enter a lithographic office was, until a few years ago, to enter holy 
ground, that is, if the artist was allowed to enter. Closed doors barred his 
progress, but when they were opened, he was confronted, confounded and 
confused by elaborate, complicated, and intricate machinery, by simplified 
workmen, each struggling with detail, by mysterious chemicals, an unknown 
language, and general mistrust, suspicion, and refusal to reveal any more than 
could be helped. Beyond all, was the sanctuary of the " Governor," where 
none might trespass. At the outer doors the artist knocked for years, and 
the mystery but increased. And yet, the mysteries within were revealed in 
Senefelder's own book. 

A few lithographers now realize that there is no mystery, that there are 
no secrets, and that by the intelligent co-operation of artist and printer alone 
can good work be done. But it is another matter with the majority who 
know nothing really about lithography. And that they know as little of art 
as of lithography is painfully evident. 

Of all the graphic arts not one is so simple, so plain, so direct as 
lithography, and the simplest method of making a lithograph is to draw upon 
stone, with chalk or pen or wash. To make an etching, a steel-engraving, or 
a wood-engraving demands technical training. The wood or steel engraver 
must learn to draw lines with graver or burin, a difficult task. The etcher 
must learn to bite in with nitric acid the lines drawn with a point, an 
uncertain proceeding. Not only this : the work on wood or metal does not 
show, during its progress, the design as it will appear when printed. Nor 
does the block of wood, or the plate of metal, resemble the print in colour. 
It is not until a proof is pulled that the artist can see the reproduction of his 
original. But the copper plate or the wood block is but a means to an end and 
the end is printing, in intaglio or relief. In lithography, the lines, the drawing 
made by the artist on paper or on stone, are the lines that will print, and he 

T * 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

sees them before him all the while he works. Every touch he makes is visible 
and should print exactly as he puts it down. The drawing grows under his hand 
on paper, or on stone, precisely as on any other piece of paper, or on canvas. 
Each touch is there, his individuality, or his mannerism. There is but one 
thing for him to learn, and this is purely mechanical : to reverse his design 
when necessary, if he is drawing on stone, and he who etches or engraves 
or draws on wood, must also learn to do so. But all this is now obviated 
by photography in the case of wood or metal, or by transferring in lithography. 
In a word, it is because lithography, technically, is so plain, so simple, so 
straightforward, that it fell for years into the clutches of the business man 
and the trade unionist. No one ever heard of a trade union of steel 
engravers, or etchers, or wood engravers, because the training of a metal 
or wood engraver requires some artistic ability to make it of practical value. 
Mechanical and metal engravers now have unions, but they would scarce 
allow an artist in them. An " artist-lithographer " may produce a cigar- 
box label, a map, or a Christmas card, without knowing how to draw. A 
pantograph and photography and tracing will do the whole thing for him, as 
the early textbooks showed by their illustrations and directions. 

All the methods of making lithographs, save in a few details, are described 
in Senefelder's Complete Course of Lithography, published in 1818 in 
Germany, soon after translated into English and French, and newly translated 
into English in 191 1 by J. W. Muller. In this work all the materials 
necessary to practise the art, and the methods of using them, are fully 
explained, and the more intelligent writers upon the subject have more or less 
followed Senefelder's plan. In this work also it is proposed to follow his 
arrangement, for two reasons: because his plan is an excellent constructive 
one, and because any reader wishing to refer to Senefelder's book can do so 
without trouble — but not without intelligence. 

Lithography is a method of printing different from all other methods in 
use and properly described by Senefelder as Chemical Printing. A much 
more appropriate definition would be Surface Printing. All other methods of 
printing are divided into two branches, the one reproducing the original 
design by means of elevated lines on the top of which ink is distributed, the 
other by engraved or incised lines into which the ink is forced and then 
extracted by pressure. To the first branch belong letterpress printing and 
the printing of line blocks and wood-cuts and wood engravings, and the various 
forms of mechanical engraving for printing with letterpress. The letters and 
designs are formed in metal or engraved on wood, so that the lines and 
points of which they are made up, and which are to receive colour, are 
elevated, while the rest of the plate or block which is to remain blank, on the 
paper, lies at, or is cut away to, a lower level, and does not receive the ink. The 
types or blocks, stereotypes or electrotypes, are all of equal height, type high, 

234 




Francisco Goya : Portrait. 
Unknown. 



TECHNICAL AND CRITICAL INTRODUCTION 

and to get an impression a roller, charged with black or coloured ink, is 
passed over them. It is so adjusted that it touches only the elevated spots, 
which it covers with ink, so that when a sheet of paper is laid upon them 
or rolled over them in the press, an impression is taken off from the 
surface only. This is relief or letterpress printing. In copper or metal 
engraving the method is the reverse. The lines, dots, or spaces etched or 
engraved are sunk into the metal, and have to be charged with ink. To 
do this, the whole plate is covered with ink and that on the surface 
wiped off with rags, the ink only remaining in the sunken lines into 
which it is forced. If a piece of paper is placed upon these inked lines and 
passed through a press with great pressure, the paper will be squeezed into 
the lines and the ink will adhere to the paper. This is the theory and 
practice of metal or intaglio engraving. Chemical printing, lithography, is 
totally different. There is no relief or depression whatever, of the surface of 
the stone or plate, and the whole printing process depends upon chemical 
affinity, and the laws of attraction and repulsion, in that if a drawing is made 
upon a Hat surface, which is then damped with water, and the lines and 
points which are to print are covered with ink, they will absorb the ink and 
give it off on a sheet of paper, while those parts that are to remain white 
will repel the ink. Hullmandel, in his translation of Raucourt's Manual of 
Lithography, 1819, defines in his opening paragraph the art of lithography 
extremely well : " Lithography is founded on mutual and chemical affinities 
which hitherto have never been applied to the art of engraving. The dislike 
which water has for all fat bodies and the affinity which compact calcareous 
stones have both for water and greasy substances are the basis on which 
rests this new and highly interesting discovery." This is surface printing, 
lithography, and constitutes the whole difference between lithography and 
other forms of engraving and printing. It does not mean drawing upon stone 
or printing from stone. The stone was an accidental, but a very excellent 
material, the best material that Senefelder could find. For several reasons, 
among which are uniform composition, ease of polishing, and the fact that the 
stone both attracts and repels water and grease equally, though several metals 
such as zinc and aluminium will do the same, the stone was and is employed. 
The theory and practice of chemical printing, now known as lithography, 
are as follows : If the stone is drawn upon, or has transferred to it a design 
in greasy ink or chalk, and this design is washed with water, the grease of 
the design will repel the water and those parts of the stone or plate which 
are blank will absorb it. If now a roller, charged with the same greasy 
ink, is passed over the flat surface of the stone, the ink will come off of the 
roller and adhere to the greasy design. But the blank parts of the stone 
which are wet will refuse to take the ink from the roller and will remain 
blank. This is lithography, and it depends on chemical affinity, and not on 

237 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

contact alone. For if the plate or stone is not damped, it will imbibe the 
colour all over from the roller and print perfectly black. But if wetted, it 
takes the colour only in those places that are in a state the reverse of wet- 
ness. The repelling therefore of the colour from all those places which are 
to remain blank is the basis of the art. This chemical process of printing 
is applicable not only to stone but to many substances, and printing from stone 
is only a branch of chemical printing. This is the discovery of Senefelder, 
and nothing has been added to it, or employed in this chemical printing, which 
he did not foresee, except photography, and the use of certain metals and 
rubber. By means of photography other branches of chemical printing, such 
as photo-lithography and collotype, have become practical. But these are not 
methods which much concern the artist, as the design is photographed on to 
the flat surface and printed from it without his aid. In fact he cannot correct 
or work on a collotype. But the chemical action, the surface printing, is 
exactly the same. Senefelder's aims were mainly the superseding by chemical 
printing of engraving, etching, and letterpress printing, or rather the cheapen- 
ing of the cost of printing by these methods, and he was also endeavouring 
to apply his invention to calico and wall-paper printing. Though, he says, 
these aims are " sufficient to establish the usefulness of the new art, there are 
several other methods peculiar to it, not to be imitated by type or copper-plate 
printing. Of these I shall notice only the chalk manner by which every 
artist is enabled to multiply his original drawings. And secondly the transfer 
manner, by which every piece of writing or drawing with the greasy ink on 
paper can be transferred to the stone and impressions taken from it. This 
last method may one day be of great utility." 

These are the lithographic methods which concern the artist, and they 
were foreseen by Senefelder, who called them the " principal advantages which, 
according to my firm conviction, lithography possesses." 

A second and much more thorough examination of the Leipzig and 
Cologne Exhibitions, 1914 — visits to trade schools, galleries, and work in German 
printing-offices, the Pan Press in Berlin — has enabled me to gather together 
several facts and gain a little experience. Printers and teachers and the 
Germans gained something too. 

In Germany, with few exceptions, the art schools are now dominated by 
Post-Impressionism — and the students are turning out with the greatest 
ease and the utmost rapidity " masterpieces " which would astonish the 
followers of the fad here. These outbursts are not confined to lithography, 
but are dominating all artistic production. However, a similar craze, Fart 
noiiveau, attacked Europe a short while ago — and raged most furiously in 
Germany — and has disappeared leaving no trace behind. So the present 
bubble will be pricked by some new thing. Meanwhile art will go on, tradition 
will be carried on, and now and again an artist will appear able to do this. 

238 




AuoLPHH Hf.rviek : Landscape. 



X 



TECHNICAL AND CRITICAL INTRODUCTION 

As to work shown outside the present outburst, there was little that I had 
not seen and that has not been referred to, that really was inspiring. 
But technically there was much to learn. 

The school that impressed me most was the Leipzig Academy — Der 
Koniglichen Akademie fur Graphische Kunste und Buch Gewerbe — and this 
is entirely devoted to the making of the book. And so far as I can find 
out or have seen, there is no school in the world to approach it. It is not 
only filled with students but directed by eminent teachers and furnished with 
the most modern machinery. The German lithographic printing press is the 
most perfect machine I have ever seen — but I cannot say the Germans are 
the most perfect printers— though they are supplied with the best tools. The 
presses are all made by the firm of Kraus, of Leipzig. The fundamental 
difference is that in the German lithographic press the scraper is fitted under 
a heavy metal yoke, which is pulled downwards on the stone by a lever or 
handle with immense force, and the bed is not raised up against it, as in other 
presses. The adjustment of the scraper is therefore better and easier, and 
in transferring the drawing can be put on the stone by one single pull — 
thus saving time and the risk of sticking or doubling — in fact, it will stick 
and double if it is run through more than once. All the adjustments of the 
press to prevent, for example, the scraper running off the stone — and probably 
being broken or breaking — are most practical, while so well are the presses 
geared that a large one can be run by one man, as easily as a copper-plate 
press. Neither in the schools, the exhibition, nor at the Pan Press was 
steam or other power — save that of the printer — used ; and he did everything. 
There were no helpers or hinderers about. One detail was, that all stones 
which wanted to be backed were brought into the printing-room backed — I 
think they are cemented together — and endless time is saved and filthy messes 
avoided. The German methods of printing are quite different from the 
English and American. German printers do not understand, or were unaware, 
that drawings on prepared paper, save the chemical paper of Anger and 
Goeschl, could be preserved, and did not believe it, till I proved it to them. 
But they were perfectly familiar with transferring and preserving drawings on 
ordinary paper. They use all sorts of paper that will take lithographic chalk. 
They do not preserve ink or wash drawings, but do transfer them from 
ordinary paper. They use Korn's chalks and Lemercier's inks mostly. 

The making and keeping of drawing ink, as I have stated, has always 
been regarded here as difficult. 

The German method is as follows : A grlass bottle with a grlass air-tisfht 
stopper is taken and a slab of lithographic Lemercier's ink is cut up into 
this. To these small shavings enough water is added to cover them ; the ink 
gradually dissolves, and forms a paste after some days. Some of this when 
wanted is taken out with a knife or spoon and placed on a water-colour slate 

241 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

or slab and the bottle restopped ; the paste is then thinned down to different 
tones or used as ink, with pen or brush, when diluted with water. The 
paste in the bottle is of a uniform strength, and I am told it will keep for 
years. Mr. Ernest Jackson tells me he has tried this method or an adaptation 
of it. He puts the entire stick in the bottle and lets it dissolve, and to 
the mixture he adds a few drops of oil of lavender. 

In the printing-office, however, of Messrs. Wagner and Debes, of 
Leipzig, map publishers, where the most accurate drawing and uniform black 
is required, the French ink called ioiuher is ground in the usual way as 
wanted, by rubbing the lump on a heated saucer or slab. But the map 
draughtsmen in Messrs. Warner and Debes' are the most amazing technicians 
— men of the utmost accuracy and patience, as the maps in Baedeker's 
Guides prove. 

The other method is one for artists, and — as the results in the hands of 
artists prove — an excellent one. 

As for artistic printing, save in the Leipzig Academy — where every- 
thing was shown me and I was asked to give a demonstration — there was 
the usual old trade-secret system in vogue ; in fact, the method was the 
worst I have ever seen. The artist sent in his drawings on paper — and while 
I was working in Berlin they came not only from all over Germany but 
from Amsterdam and Vienna by post — and the proofs were returned by post. 
The artists rarely, if ever, saw their work put on stone or printed ; they 
simply made corrections on the stones, sent them, or wrote these corrections 
on the proofs. But I insisted on seeing the work done, and stood by the 
press while it was done. But in the end there were so many failures and 
the proofs were so little like my drawings that I refused to go on, and the 
German artists whom I talked to, all told me that this was the trouble in 
Germany ; the printer was the artist, and not the man who made the drawing. 
With such a system it is impossible to obtain the best work or good work 
at all. But the German artists have trained themselves to work for the 
printer and given up trying to get him to work for them or with them. I 
understand Herr Kappstein has rebelled and written a treatise on printing. I 
have not seen it, but from printers heard it condemned ; but I have seen 
Herr Kappstein's work and it is technically the best in Germany to-day. 

The method of transferring from plain paper practised at the Pan Press 
is as follows : The stone is covered with alcohol or spirits of wine. This is 
lighted and the process repeated two or three times. The stone is then cleaned 
with turpentine and whitening, I believe, and while still hot the drawing is 
placed face downwards on it and run through the press once. It comes off 
perfectly, the drawing remaining on the paper, the grease adhering to the 
stone, which is then gummed and rolled up, and if then treated as we 
artists treat drawings, splendid proofs would probably be obtained ; and I 

242 




H. Dekoy : Portrait of Baudelaire. 



TECHNICAL AND CRITICAL INTRODUCTION 

have obtained them in Berlin, though I believe the method of heating 
melts the chalk all over evenly and spreads the work. But, instead, all the 
old litho tricks are resorted to, and more, every drawing is treated in the 
same way — a machine could do it better — and to this is added the reckless 
use of the rag soaked in ink and turpentine to bring up the drawing. It 
does bring it up — of a uniform flat, fat, dead level, utterly without quality, 
every line of equal slackness and breadth, while where it is too heavy it is 
soused with acid and whole pieces etched away, or washed and rubbed with 
turps till all the bloom is gone, and a weak woolly tone comes all over it. 
The printer has no idea of allowing the artist to etch his work or of 
etching it himself, save by rubbing it all over with a sponge or brush dipped 
in — to my idea — much too strong acid. The German ink, too, is weak, it 
seems to me, and if brown is wanted, blues and reds and yellows enough 
to make a rainbow are added, and the result is mud. I do not think the 
ink is really good, and the rolling up is invariably overdone in the old 
all-over fashion. 

But though I pointed out what I wanted and showed the printer how to 
get it, he failed to do so, and finally refused to work while I was about. 
Under such conditions, even with their excellent machinery no excellent, or 
even tolerable, results can be obtained, and I refused to go on. The paper, 
Jap and Van Gelder, or plate paper, is used dry, mostly — always in my case. 
Damping is practised, but it was not done for me. On the other hand, 
when the prover gets a proof he likes, the stone is then turned over to the 
printers in another room, who never even look at the original, but multiply 
the proof given them with a uniformity that is as unbelievable as it is a fact. 
It is magnificent, but it is not art. The mutual consultation of artist and 
printer seems unknown, and it is surprising that the results are as good as 
they are. 

Most German lithographs, however, are supposed to be sketches, big and 
bold, sketches in chalk, wash and ink, which look like chalk, wash and ink 
drawings and have no lithographic quality whatever. These can be put on 
the stone, or drawn on the stone easily, and printed easily ; they have 
no lithographic quality ; but all good work is done slowly and with difficulty. 
On the other hand, endless time and trouble are taken in teaching and 
practising the old methods. Some of the results are astounding as copies, 
but the original artist has nothing to do with the matter, and I was more 
impressed by the machinery than the art. 



245 



DESCRIPTION OF THE 
STONE AND METALS 



CHAPTER IX 

THE stone which is almost universally used for the purpose of 
lithography is a sort of calcareous slate quarried mostly at Kellheim, 
or Solenhofen, Germany. The stones from these quarries are 
better adapted to lithography than any others that have been 
found. The best stones should, according to Senefelder, possess the following 
qualities. The thickness must always be in proportion to the size ; the larger 
they are the thicker they must be. In general, the best thickness of a 
stone is from two to two and a half inches. The harder the stones the 
better they are for the different manners of drawing upon, or printing from, 
provided their substance be uniform. If not, and there are spots or softer 
parts, the drawings or prints from them may be smeared or not take the 
colour from them uniformly. Even the best stones often have defects, such as 
holes, veins and fissures, or fossils, and although to the professional lithographic 
copyist these are serious defects, unless there is a decided line across the 
stone which prints, or a hole in an important place, they are not of much 
consequence to artists. Some stones, too, have patches of chalk or bits of 
o-lass or fossils in them, and these are most unpleasant, as they either may 
absorb too much ink or repel it, and they also may shale off or break in the 
press. The soft stones, if not very thick, are apt to break, but as they 
retain more colour, more ink, than the hard ones, they give a richer effect. 
But as they absorb the ink more rapidly, they give fewer impressions, as the 
ink both spreads and sinks into the stone rapidly, and the drawing gets, as 
the printers say, " bunged up." The stone should be at least an inch 
laro-er all round than the drawing on it. Otherwise it causes great incon- 
venience to the printer both in inking and pulling the proof Lithographic 
stones, which are sold by weight, can now be bought anywhere of lithographic 
dealers. Marble, artificial stone, glass, wood, zinc, aluminium, anything that 
will absorb and repel grease and water, may be used, but stone is the 
most reliable and generally employed. Lithographers prefer greyish stones ; 
most artists like yellowish ones, as they approach in colour the print 
from them on paper. At the present time zinc and aluminium are exten- 
sively used to replace the stone, as they answer equally well. There is, 
however, in England especially, a great opposition among lithographers, or 
has been until lately, to the use of these metals for the simple reason that 

246 




F. Brangwyn : The Docks. 
Drawn on stone. This drawing was printed in two colours. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE STONE AND METALS 

lithographers frequently own some thousands of stones, a valuable asset, as a 
stone lasts for years, and they do not wish to scrap them. The professional 
lithographer will tell you that a zinc or aluminium plate will not give prints as 
good as those from stone. There is no truth in it. The real reason is that 
proper experiments have not yet been made with zinc and aluminium by 
printers or by artists. Besides which, a dozen or fifteen aluminium plates of 
the same size take up only the space of one stone, and the whole of them 
do not weigh as much as the single stone, and in printing they are simply laid 
down on the top of a stone in the press and printed from. The stones also 
are very brittle and a slight shock may break them. Aluminium and zinc 
will stand any amount of rough usage. 



POLISHING THE STONE AND METALS. 

Before the stones are used they must be polished. This is done by 
rubbingr two stones together, face to face, with fine sand mixed with water 
sprinkled between them. Two surfaces are thus polished at the same time. 
If a smooth surface is required, they are polished finally with pumice or other 
fine polishing material. If they are to be grained, they are polished with 
different grades of sand which give either a coarse or fine grain to the stone. 
The artist must judge of this and he can feel the grain probably better than 
he can see it, though if he hold the stone at an angle of forty-five degrees 
and look closely along it, he can clearly see the grain that is upon it. 
Different degrees of grained sand may also be used on the same stone, 
coarser for the foreground and finer for the distance. But this graining must 
be directed by the artist, and, with practice, it produces a great variety in 
the drawing. When the drawing is transferred from paper to stone, this 
variety, or the smooth stone itself, can be taken advantage of by 
the artist. That is, if the paper is of a rough grain, it can be put on a 
smooth stone, or if of a fine grain on a rough one. The professional litho- 
grapher is never tired of praising the stone and its beautiful grain and 
running down every other material and every other method of chemical 
printing. As a matter of fact, the natural grain of the stone, when it exists, 
has to be removed, and the grain that is put on it is the grain of the sand 
and purely artificial. Marble, slate and other stones may be grained, but the 
Solenhofen stone is the most reliable. 

Zinc, aluminium, tin and other metals may be polished or grained like 
stone, though the sand-blast, or steel balls rolling over sand, is used 
now for graining them. To the artist the advantage of using these 
light metal plates is very great, as he can carry them about with him 
out of doors and work directly upon them, or, when in his studio, put 
them on his easel or drawing-table without the assistance of a couple of 

249 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

men, or a derrick, or a team of horses and a van. Beyond this, there 
is no real advantage, as the stone talces the work just as well as the zinc 
or aluminium. Printers also maintain that the drawing does not sink into 
the metal plate but remains on the surface, while it is absorbed by the 
stone. It is a fact, however, that it is very much easier, once the drawing 
is being printed, if corrections are to be made, to make them on the stone, 
or to remove work from the stone, than from metal. The work does dis- 
appear from the metal, but it frequently comes back again, and if one scrapes, 
or burnishes, on zinc or other metals, black scratches instead of lights are 
often produced. However, the use of metal and stone is a personal matter. 
And the artist will use both at various times. But the preparation, the 
graining and polishing of stones and plates, are best done by those who 
have devoted themselves to the work, though an unequal grain on the 
same stone will require the artist's supervision. Senefelder, all his life, was 
endeavouring to discover or invent a composition upon paper, on which he 
could draw and then print from, which he called stone paper, and which 
he believed would supersede everything else ; but the stone paper has never 
yet been perfected. 



250 




Anthony K. Barker : Thk Theatre. 
Poster for Underground Railway. Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by Vincent Brooks. 



CHALKS, INKS, ETCHING, 
GROUNDS AND COLOURS 



CHAPTER X 

ALL the materials necessary for drawing upon paper or stone can 
be made by the artist, and Senefelder, Hullmandel and Engelmann 
give full descriptions of the methods of making chalks and inks. 
But there is no more reason now, for the artist to make his litho- 
graphic materials, than to make his lead pencils and Indian ink. In fact, 
those made by the manufacturers are better, because, being made after the 
same formula, and in larger quantities, they are more uniform and reliable. 

LITHOGRAPHIC CHALK. 

Lithographic chalk is composed of wax, soap, lamp or French black, 
or some similar greasy ingredients, with which the black colour is mixed. 
The black is added that the artist may see his work, as there is little or no 
colour in the grease of the chalk. It is no longer necessary for the artist or 
lithographer to make it, as it is now produced of a uniform quality by various 
makers. That made by William Korn of New York, and sold by all dealers 
in lithographic materials, is very satisfactory. In making chalk drawings there 
is one thing to remember, and that is always to use the same make of chalk 
in the same drawing, because if different chalks are used, though the drawing 
may look equally black, when printed it may be filled with light spots or 
dark spaces owing to the fact that the ingredients in the different makes of 
chalk are different, and thus may contain more or less grease, and it is the 
grease alone which prints. The chalks are made up in sticks or slabs and 
cakes and vary from the hardest copal to the softest stumping chalk. There 
are four or five grades, from the hardest to the softest. As most makers 
number these differently, it is necessary to know the hardness or softness of 
the chalk before using it. Korn's chalks are put up in paper pencil form 
and are much more convenient to work with, while, as the fingers do not 
touch the chalk and soften it, they can be used in all sorts of temperatures. 
Actors' grease paint is very nice to use ; but as there is very little adhesive 
quality in the grease — or little grease in the paint — drawings made with it 
are liable to be poor and weak when printed, though they may look powerful 
on paper or stone. Almost any substance containing grease may be used to 
draw with. The professional lithographer usually employs a porte-crayon, an 

253 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

abominable and clumsy instrument. Most artists hold the chalks in their 
fingers, but in hot weather they become soft and difficult to use ; therefore 
Korn's pencils are most useful. 

INKS. 

The ink is only another form of the chalk which may be ground down, 
like a dry watercolour, or a stick of Indian ink, and dissolved in distilled 
water or rain-water. The method of doing this is to heat a saucer, rub the 
ink (chalk) which melts on it, and then mix it with water ; the drawing is either 
then made with a brush or the ink is put on the pen with a brush — any 
fine lithographic pen may be used. The ink will not keep long. It is very 
much better to grind it freshly every day. There are liquid inks made, but 
most of them do not seem to last for any time. See also remarks on this in 
Introductory Technical Chapter. 

ETCHING GROUNDS. 

For etching upon lithographic plates or stones ordinary etching ground 
may be used, applied in the ordinary way that etchers apply it, though it 
is necessary to use a liquid ground for stone, as the stone cannot be heated 
enough without cracking to apply it satisfactorily. For covering plates with 
a flat and acid-resisting ground, through which it is intended to scrape or 
scratch, bitumen or asphaltum can be poured over the face of the stone and 
it will resist the acid — or ink may be rolled on the stone with a roller, allowed 
to dry, and the drawing then made, in either case, with an etching needle 
by scratching through the ground. If a weak etching solution is used, the 
ink will resist it, and the acid will act on the drawing alone. 

The same grounds made of asphaltum or bitumen, on a rough-grained 
stone, may have the drawing scraped out by mezzotint tools exactly in the 
manner of that art. 

PRINTING INK. 

The printing ink is now supplied by lithographic dealers. It is sold in 
tins ready mixed. The colouring pigment of the best ink is lamp black. If 
too strong, varnishes and oils may be mixed with it to thin it. In lithography 
the ink plays the most important part and usually each drawing requires a 
different strength of ink. A lithograph demands the same careful printing as 
an etching. The printer can use a thin, weak ink much more easily, and with 
less work in rolling, than a thick, stiff one, and he will if not watched. The 
drawing requires far less inking, and, unless he too is an artist, he will use it on all 
occasions, with the consequence that many drawings are utterly ruined after a few 
impressions, entirely his fault, because the ink, being thin, not only clings to the 
line but sinks into the stone and spreads all over it, producing a dirty smear 

254 




(i. Spencer Pkyse : The Football Match. 
Drawn on stone by the artist in colour. 



CHALKS, INKS, ETCHING GROUNDS AND COLOURS 

which never can be removed. And the professional printer, unless he is an 
artist, will use ink of an inferior quality. Even the lithographic ink manu- 
facturer, for some reason known only to himself, will sell it to you. What 
is described as the best lithographic ink will cost four shillings a pound. 
The really best costs twelve — Richmond, in the Grammar of Litho- 
graphy, says forty. One quarter of the best will go as far as the whole 
of the other. Yet the printer uses the inferior ink because he can cover the 
design with it more easily and with less work. The thick ink does not 
spread so much, but it takes much longer to roll up the design. The design 
when properly inked should be beautifully sharp and clear. But unless the 
printer is a man of intelligence and feeling, he is liable to spoil any drawing. 
The only sure way to success is for the artist either to print himself or 
stand beside the printer. If the work is left to the printer, it may be from 
the professional lithographer's point of view very fine, but from the artist's 
very bad. At times the tint accidentally got by the printer is good, but it always 
is an accident. But the getting of ink tints will be referred to. 

To sum up, "lithographic ink," says Hullmandel, "to be good must 
come clean off on the paper and leave no traces behind on the stone. When 
this takes place the ink, with which the stone is charged again, is retained on 
it, merely by the chemical affinity which it has for the greasy lines of the 
drawing. The whole success of printing depends on the perfection of the 
ink." If it clings to the stone, instead of coming off on the paper in print- 
ing, the dark portions of the design will become faint while the light parts 
will print dark, and all those parts where too much ink remains and collects 
cannot stand the pressure from the press and the ink will spread, clog up all 
the lines, and destroy the drawing. 



257 K 



OF ACIDS AND OTHER COMPOSI- 
TIONS TO PREPARE THE STONE 



CHAPTER XI 

IN order that the stone, or plate, may be printed from, that is, absorb 
and repel the ink, it must be prepared. After the drawing is either 
transferred to, or made upon the stone, this must be done. There is no 
fixed rule as to the method. One printer will set the stone or plate aside 
for a day or more without touching it and then take a sponge, charged with 
gum arabic dissolved in water, and gently pat or dab the face of the entire 
stone with it. On no account should the drawing be washed with the sponge 
from side to side, or the drawing may be smeared, and at this stage it is 
very sensitive and fragile. Another printer will dab it at once. Senefelder 
recommends, in the case of drawings that are transferred to the stone, that they 
should be washed with nitric acid before being gummed. But no printers seem 
to do this at present. I believe it would wash off the drawing. The gum is 
used because, if a few drops of gum arabic are dissolved in water and the 
stone wet with it, the bare parts of the stone will not take colour so long as 
it is wet. And if the bare stone, which has been washed with the gum, 
becomes too dry and the ink adheres to it, ihe ink will wash, or roll, off as 
soon as the stone is damped again. The gum gets into the pores and 
between the grain of the stone and prevents not only the ink from penetra- 
ting it, but the stone from drying. The acid merely fixes the drawing and 
prevents it from spreading. The design on the stone is not bitten into relief. 
The gum protects the stone and prevents it from receiving the ink. This is 
the method of preparing the stone for printing. To explain the chemical 
action would take pages. The artistic manner of preparing drawings can be 
explained in a few lines. 

After the drawing has been washed or dabbed with the gum, and is 
allowed, if possible, several hours, or a day, to soak into the stone, or plate, and 
dry thoroughly, the stone or plate with the drawing on it should be washed with 
water to remove the sum which covers the surface. But the oum cannot be 
removed with water from the untouched part of the stone. It only comes off the 
design upon it. The printer then dampens it again, slightly rubbing it all over 
with a soft damp rag or sponge, and he then begins to cover the wet stone with 
ink from his roller, which only adheres to the drawing. This may take some 
time, especially in the case of transfers, or the drawing in ink may appear 
sharp, distinct, and black at once. As soon as it looks sufficiently strong, 

258 




H. Becker : The Mower. 
Poster for the Underground. Drawn on paper, transferred to stone, printed by Vincent Brooks. 



OF ACIDS AND OTHER COMPOSITIONS 

an impression should be pulled, and, if it is right, the light parts will get their 
necessary strength first, then a soft brush charged with nitric acid and water 
(twenty parts of acid to one of water) for stone ; nutgall and gum water (half 
and halt) for zinc ; there are special etching solutions for aluminium ; should be 
passed over those parts which are sufficiently strong ; the acid should first 
be tried on the edge of the stone to test its strength, and then, If not rieht, 
weakened or increased — thus preventing those parts from absorbing any 
more ink or spreading, in fact, stopping the part out. If the acid bubbles 
furiously it is too strong, it but little it is too weak ; lithographic printers 
judge the strength by putting a drop on the tongue. Before the acid is 
applied, the stone should be again inked with a roller. Otherwise, as the 
ink has left the stone and adhered to the paper, the lightest greasy lines in the 
stone or plate may be bitten entirely away by the acid. For the ink not only 
gives the colour to the print, but protects the lines as well from the acid. 
A series of proofs should be pulled, following this method of pulling, inking, 
and etching, until the entire stone or plate is etched. Some printers build 
up a border around the edge of the stone and cover the surface with diluted 
acid. This method is entirely wrong, though Senefelder recommends it, and 
the reason it is wrong is because, in order to protect or etch the darker 
lines, the fine faint ones are frequently completely etched away. Therefore, 
the method of etching the design with a brush — that is, painting the parts 
sufficiently strong with a brush ; if there is a large space to be etched a 
sponge may be used — is to be preferred. In fact, it is the only artistic 
method of etching. As soon as the plate or stone is ready to be printed 
from, and once the etching is completed, it is ready ; if the printing is not to 
be continued, the stone or plate must be at once rolled up with ink, and 
washed with the gum water, which is allowed to dry on it. This alone will 
protect the drawing. The stone then may be safely put away. Unless gummed 
up and protected it will not last. Finally, do as little etching as possible, and 
delay that till the last minute, for etching a lithograph is a most dangerous 
and delicate operation. Etching is the easiest and quickest way of ruining a 
drawing, the most difficult way of improving it. 



261 



OF NECESSARY INSTRU- 
MENTS AND UTENSILS 



CHAPTER XII 

IN no form of art are so few working materials necessary as in litho- 
graphy — that is, in artistic lithography. An artist may travel all over the 
world furnished only with blocks or sheets of drawing paper, a few boxes 
of chalks, and a sharp penknife. If he wishes ink or wash he can grind 
the chalks down and use either a pen or a brush to make his drawing with. 
To these indispensable articles may be added different sorts of chalk or any 
other greasy material, such as actors' grease paint, or creta levis pencils, or 
any other substance which contains grease. Even some lead pencils do. But 
none of these are ever reliable, and it is therefore best to confine oneself to 
one make of chalk. M. Duchatel recommends the artist to use not only the 
same make of chalk but for each drawing only one number of it — that is, the 
same chalk for the entire drawing^ getting colour bv bearing on it for darks 
and using it lightly for lights. 

A soft large flat brush, such as is supplied with copying presses, is 
useful for removing bits of chalk or dirt which may stick to the paper and 
in transferring smear the stone. 

Mezzotint rockers, scrapers and roulettes may be indulged in. But 
besides a very sharp penknife, the only instrument which is of use on 
stone — and a heavy penknife will do just as well — is called a Jumper, which, 
if passed over a portion of the drawing, will clean the ink or grease from the 
top of the dots on a grained stone and give an effect very like mezzotint. 
An endless number of other tools can be added, but these are the only 
ones that are indispensable. 



26: 




Paul Maurou : The Vision. 
After H. Martin. 



OF PAPERS 



CHAPTER XIII 

TRANSFER PAPERS. 

IF the drawing is not made upon tlie stone or metal direct, it must be 
made on paper. The transferring- of drawings to the stone is done in 
exactly the same way as any other sort of transferring ; that is, either the 
sketch, if in lead pencil or charcoal, can be laid face downward on the 
stone and run through the press, when it will come off sufficiently to enable 
the drawing to be carried out in lithographic chalk, ink, or wash — of course 
no greasv materials must be used ; or it may be traced in the ordinary way 
by means of red chalk, or a dozen other ways, all of which are known to artists. 
The one precaution is not to use grease, when every line transferred or traced 
would print. But if the drawing is made with lithographic chalk, pen or 
wash, for the purpose of transferring to the stone, it may be done on one or 
two sorts of paper. Any sort of ordinary drawing paper that the artist happens 
to like — Japanese tracing paper is equally good — may be used. The paper 
requires no preparation and the artist draws upon it with lithographic chalk 
or ink or wash without thinking of anything at all e.xcept his drawing. As 
Hullmandel says, "The draughtsman should be supplied with materials similar 
to those he is in the habit of using. Otherwise, by obliging" him to employ 
tools he is a stranger to, you run the risk of cramping his genius and make 
it impossible to realize his usual spirit and freedom of touch." M. Duchatel, 
in his Mamiel de la Lithographie Artistique, says "the artist has no need of 
a special education in order to make lithographs and should go at his work 
boldly, without bothering over trivial accidents, for he can correct them 
with the greatest ease, and he neither wants special tools nor a special 
education to make a fine lithograph." There is only one drawback to the 
use of plain paper : corrections cannot be made on it. It is impossible to 
remove the chalk without making smears which print. Any kind of correction 
can be made when the drawing is transferred to the stone or the plate. 
Therefore many artists use some sort of paper which has a thin coat of com- 
position of size, or starch, or plaster-of- Paris, applied to one side of it. It is so 
thin, when properly made, that it is invisible and the grain of the paper, if it 
has a grain, comes through it ; while if the paper is smooth there is enough grain 
in the composition to give a tooth to the chalk. There is only one thing to 
remember in using this paper : though it is easy to make corrections, and 
equally easy to draw over those parts where the corrections have been 

26=: K* 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

made, the drawing so made, if the composition has been entirely removed by 

scraping, will not transfer to the stone and print. This is a fact which is not 

understood by any artist or printer. The artist may draw with perfect 

certainty, either on plain or on prepared paper, but he cannot combine the 

two. He should therefore wait to make his corrections, until he has finished 

his drawing, and then make them, in such a manner, with a sharp penknife, 

that he will not have to draw again over the part he has corrected, and 

he should endeavour also, if possible, not to scratch completely through the 

composition. Some artists in order to make corrections paste a piece of 

paper over the part they wish to correct ; or a better way is to cut out the 

defective part, paste some clean paper on the back, and redraw the cut out 

portion. This must not be fixed with gum or grease, but flour paste. ■ Others 

apply the composition, painting out the defect, with a brush, but this takes 

hours to dry. 

The various brittle yellow-coated celluloid-covered or mechanically grained 

and dotted German and Austrian papers should be avoided. Any kind of 

unprepared paper may be drawn upon with lithographic chalk. The most 

reliable surfaced paper is known as Scotch Transfer Paper. When using 

unprepared papers the artist should draw on the same paper he is in the 

habit of using. 

THE PRINTING PAPER. 

Every artist has some ideas of his own in regard to the paper he wishes 
his lithographs printed on. Either it should be old Dutch or Italian or Van 
Gelder, or plate paper, or papier Ingres, India or Japan. A perfect method of 
drawing and printing would be that the artist should make his drawing, for 
example, on a sheet of uncoated unprepared papier Ingres, transfer it to the 
stone, and print it upon another sheet of the same paper. If this were 
properly done, it should be impossible to distinguish the drawing made by 
the artist from a multiplication of it made by the printer. And this has 
very nearly been done and will be in the near future. The choice of a 
paper is a question of personal liking, provided of course that the paper 
chosen is one that will take the lithographic ink. If not, it cannot be used. 
This is a matter of experiment, though some care must be taken in ex- 
perimenting, for certain papers stick to the stone, others pull all the ink 
off, and a third kind refuse to absorb any. All such happenings are liable 
to injure the drawing. Avoid papers with large watermarks ; they print. 

DAMPING THE PAPER. 

Most papers require to be damped, especially if they are sized. But 
certain others can be used dry. The damping of printing paper must be 

■ If transfer paper is used, it is only necessary to damp the edges of the piece put on from the 
back, when it will stick. 

266 




A. S. Hartrick : Betsey. 
Drawn on stone, mostly washed with turpentine from black to light, finished with chalk. 



OF PAPERS 

very carefully done because, even more than in the pruning' of etchings, if 
the paper is too wet or too dry it will either not take the colour or take 
too much, and if one continues to print with paper that is not in proper 
condition the drawing will be quickly ruined. Every printer has his own 
way of damping- paper, and so has every artist. Some pass the paper through 
a bath of water, a sheet at a time. Some immerse a large quantity in a 
bath at once. Others take it out immediately. A few leave it overnight in 
the water. Some use hot, some cold water. Once it is wet there are one 
or two things to remember. It is just as well first to wet it with hot water, 
then to lay it carefully in a pile upon a stone or plate. Some place a sheet 
of dry paper between each two damp ones. When the pile, in either way, 
is made, a smooth board is placed on the top, or a sheet of zinc or glass, 
and a stone upon that, and the pressure should be gradually increased. It 
should be left for at least twenty-four hours, and at the end of that time the 
weight should be taken off and the paper shifted or turned over ; otherwise, 
either the edges will dry or the paper will be wrinkled. In either case, 
impressions will be poor. It is just as well, after twenty-four hours, to wet 
it again with a sponge. The degree of dampness necessary, however, can 
only be learned by experience, and it varies with every sort of paper, with 
the time of year and the temperature. Good printing depends on two 
things absolutely — good ink and properly damped paper. Without these 
even a good printer can get no good proofs. 



/ 



269 



OF PRESSES AND 
OF PRINTING 



CHAPTER XIV 

WHILE a lithograph may be printed on almost any sort of a 
press, the press specially devised for it and manufactured to-day 
is, for many reasons, the best. In the beginning Senefelder 
used an ordinary copper-plate press before he and others 
devised presses specially for printing lithographs ; and the copper-plate press 
will transfer and print a lithograph perfectly, in the case of metal plates with- 
out the slightest change, addition, or alteration in its working parts, for 
a lithograph on a metal plate can be treated exactly like a copper plate. 
The surface print comes off just as easily as an incised design in this press. 
There is only one drawback, which is that the lithographic press works much 
faster and easier than the copper-plate press, and Senefelder himself says this 
is the only drawback. For artists who own a copper-plate press and wish to 
do their own printing there is no difficulty whatever. The blankets and the 
backing are arranged exactly as for copper-plate printing, the only difference 
being in the method of inking. A stone, however, will present certain 
difficulties. The upper cylinder would have to be raised sufficiently to take 
it, and in many presses this could not be done, and even if it were, blocks of 
wood or metal would have to be placed at each end to keep the cylinder 
from falling when it came off the stone. Ordinary letterpress presses, Sene- 
felder says, could be advantageously applied to lithography. Any sort of 
press, in fact, the bed of which works under some sort of a weight which 
presses upon the surface of the stone can be used. But after years of 
experimenting, commenced by Senefelder, a special press for printing litho- 
graphs has been evolved. This consists of a bed which, like that of a 
copper-plate press, travels backwards and forwards. On this the stone is 
placed with the printing paper on it. This is covered with several sheets of 
backing paper, large sheets of plate-paper — the printer usually employs spoiled 
proofs ; they must be larger than the print, or they will make plate marks on it 
— and the metal tympan — a frame containing a thin sheet of metal or leather — 
drops upon it. As the bed of the press is pushed forward by a wheel or crank, 
a wooden scraper with a leather edge descends upon the stone, or the bed of 
the press is lifted, and it scrapes the ink off the drawing on to the paper. When 
the stone has passed through the press under the scraper, it is released and the 
stone comes back again ready to be again inked.' The inking is done on the 
' See Introductory Chapter VIII for description of German presses. 

270 






r 






M^ 



t.j 5*<* 



h^ i^^H-''"'^ 













^=^^!:^-...,.......^--*:;^^5^ 



Charles Conder : Cabaret. 
Drawn on paper, transferred to stone by C. Goulding. 



OF PRESSES AND OF PRINTING 

press without removino- the stone or plate. To-day most presses work by steam, 
even proving presses, and in these the bed and stone on it return automati- 
cally to be inked, the whole being done by the mere pulling down of a 
handle, which brings the stone or plate in contact with the scraper. The 
adjustment of a lithographic press for proper printing is very much simpler 
than that of a copper-plate press. It is also m.uch lighter, though not so 
compact. But then it was for lightness, cheapness and simplicity that Sene- 
felder, and other lithographers, were working in order, by lithography, to 
supersede metal and wood engraving. The printing too is very much simpler, 
or was intended to be, by Senefelder. The printer uses an ink roller covered 
with leather, and fitted with handles. It is several inches in diameter and 
the whole affair about a foot and a half long. It is all made in one piece, 
and covers for the hands have to be used to prevent blisters from the 
revolving handles. The roller is typical of the unintelligent, unexperimental 
methods of lithographers. The modern etching roller revolves on bearings, the 
handles remain stationary — no lithographer or lithographic material maker 
has had the sense to apply this method. But he makes something out ot 
the hand covers. With this ink roller covered with leather, and fitted 
with handles, the printer endeavours to cover the whole design with a 
flat layer of ink, depending upon the strength of the lines to take the 
colour, rather than on any appreciation or understanding of the drawing. A 
printer not infrequently works in a room utterly devoid of proper light, the 
stone is placed upon the press in any position whatever, and his whole aim 
is to ink up the drawing perfectly flatly and to avoid two things : grey spots 
which come from insufficient inking, and black lines across the design made 
by the edge of the roller. It is true that old printers know how to rub more 
or less ink on to a drawing, and to take ink off the design, if too much has 
got on to it. But the average lithographic printer has no idea of inking 
so as to produce, or aid, or support the artist's design. At the present day, 
the same thing is true of etching, and in both cases the fault is that of the 
artist, whose endeavour is to produce an etching or a lithograph which may 
be turned over to the printer, who will turn it out without any further trouble 
to himself; the artist usually does not go to the printer's, and sometimes does 
not even bother to pass a proof. This constitutes the highest development 
of modern art work as now taught by most modern professors of etching and 
lithography, and their manner of teaching is the reason, at least one of the 
reasons, that lithography and etching have been grabbed by commercial 
exploiters, which is all they are, whether they call themselves artists or 
printers. 

The artist who cares at all for his work either sets up a press in his 
studio, getting a printer to help him — if his work is of any considerable size 
this is absolutely necessary — or goes to the professional printer's and stands 

2/3 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

beside the press and sees every proof as it is pulled. Once the stone is 
properly adjusted on the bed and the pressure secured, the printer, having 
previously seen that the stone is so placed that the darkest part of the design 
or the most sensitive part of the design can be inked first and with least 
exertion, inks it all over with his roller and pulls a proof. He will 
endeavour usually to do what he calls "strip the stone," that is, remove all 
the ink and chalk which is upon its surface. To do this, he uses a dry 
sheet of tissue paper, and, having damped the stone again, places the paper 
upon it and pulls it through the press, and by stripping it takes all the 
bloom, the quality, from it. The tissue paper pulls off all the surface 
ink or chalk, the theory being that the grease of the ink or chalk having 
sunk into the stone or plate, is quite sufficient to print from. The surface 
chalk or ink will come off after a few ordinary impressions, on to the proofs. 
But meanwhile it is being forced into the stone or plate and hard sharp lines 
are being toned down, and a bloom is coming over the whole drawincj. This 
the printer does not want. But the artist does. Besides, if the chalk is pulled 
off the surface of the stone, it makes it much easier to ink and to print, as 
the paper does not stick to the ink or design. The printer should not be 
allowed to use anything except the paper on which it is proposed to print 
the edition. For the sooner the stone can be got into a proper printing 
condition — it usually takes several experimental trial proofs to do this — the 
better. The early proofs of a lithograph, unlike those from a copper-plate, 
are not usually the best. There is this radical difference between copper-plate 
printing and lithography. The copper plate as it is printed grows weaker, 
the lithograph becomes stronger, in colour. The printer, when he has the 
stone properly and rightly rolled up, will, if not stopped, pour some turpentine 
■on the stone and wash all the ink and apparently the entire drawing off the 
stone — to clean it. This should never be permitted, as it removes all the 
bloom from the drawing. And this cleaning with turpentine should only be 
resorted to in cases where no other methods of cleaning the stone avail. The 
theory is that the grease has sunk in the stone — which is a fact — and that the 
ink roller will bring back the drawing — which is not a fact. 

When the artist tells the printer that his proof is fairly right all over, 
it is his business, if he wishes really good proofs, to point out to the 
printer where it should be increased in colour, or lessened. According to the 
printer, this can only be done in one way, that is by painting with acid over 
those parts he wishes lighter and so reducing them, instead of which he 
usually bites the greys into black spots. And to increase the darks the printer 
uses a rag dipped in ink dissolved in turpentine, and with it smears the 
parts he wishes darker. It is not necessary usually to do either. It is, 
however, far simpler and quicker for the printer and, in case of failure, the 
artist is at once blamed. But there is an artistic method of printing artistic 

2/4 




Joseph Pennell : The Guard Gate, Gatun Lock, Panama Canal. 
Drawn on paper at Gatun, transferred in Philadelphia. 



OF PRESSES AND OF PRINTING 

lithographs. In the first place, the ink is the most important factor. The 
printer will endeavour to use the ink that works the most easily, which 
requires the least muscle and the least time to get a print. The best ink 
requires an expenditure of both muscle and time. Not only this. As the 
printer continues his work, it is almost certain, in an edition of twenty-five or 
fifty proofs, that he will have repeatedly to strengthen or weaken his ink, 
cleaning his ink slab first and using less or more oil. He may even have to use 
two different sorts of ink and two different rollers on the same design, though 
this is easy, even if it takes a third roller to blend them. With all possible 
care and forethought, the drawing may become too strong all over and begin 
to spread. The printer's remedy is to pour turpentine on it and wash it 
completely off the surface of the stone or plate. This washes off all the 
tone and bloom which have been growing, and in many cases they never 
return, as has been stated above. But there is another way of getting 
rid of excess colour, and that is not to put so much ink on, when the 
superfluous ink will come off on the paper. As much depends upon the 
paper being properly damped, as on the intelligence of the printer, or the 
excellence of the ink. The aim of the printer of lithographs has, during 
the last few years, been to reduce them to a dead commercial level, and 
his ideas have been taken up by etching printers also. Etching and wash- 
ing out of lithographs during printing should only be resorted to when 
everything else has failed. There are any number of ways of reducing 
tones or strengthening them without proceeding to such a suicidal method. If 
a work is too strong in some part and a rag is thinly covered with powdered 
pumice-stone and lightly brushed over that part and it is then washed with a 
damp sponge, the work will be reduced at once. This will probably have 
to be repeated frequently by the artist, standing by the printer, but no artist 
who cares for his work will object to improving his design if he can. It is 
easy enough by this means, and many others, including etching, and especially 
by the use of mezzotint scrapers and the jumper, to reduce work, to take 
out blacks, and when they have been taken out the stone must be slightly 
etched, but very quickly, the acid being removed at once with the sponge 
and the part corrected touched with gum. If increased strength is wanted, 
palm oil may be rubbed on a piece of flannel and the weak passage rubbed 
with it, and then etched and gummed ; or it may be cleaned, and ink 
dissolved in turpentine and applied with a rag rubbed over it, and then etched 
and gummed. But the stone is usually prepared, that is, a solution of acetic 
acid, or some other acid, which destroys the gum on the stone, is washed on those 
parts of it with a sponge ; because while the gum is on the stone, as it always 
is more or less, unless washed off in this way, the chalk or ink cannot penetrate 
the gummy surface but lies on top of it, and if it is not washed off, in damping 
the stone or plate, the work comes off as soon as the roller is passed over 

277 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

it. Therefore the acetic acid, known as " Preparation," is used to remove the 
gum. When it is removed, the portion may be drawn upon, etched, and 
CTummed up, and the work should and usually does remain. The harmonizing 
of new and old work on a stone or plate is always difficult and tedious, and 
it is very much easier, after the drawing has been inked all over and damped 
and is ready to print, for the artist, without preparing it, to go over those 
portions he wants strengthened with the side of his chalk, which adheres to 
the inked lines on his stone and frequently produces exactly the increased 
strength he seeks, while the chalk he has added remains on the stone or plate, 
which must not, however, be either further damped or inked before printing. 
The artist must be warned against etching, as much as possible, because, if 
he finds a portion of his drawing too heavy, and applies acid to that part 
of it, before it is again inked, the lines which are unprotected by ink will be 
a great deal more reduced than he thinks, or they may disappear altogether. 
And if he waits, as the printer will tell him to, until the drawing has been 
again inked, the part which was already too strong, by the addition of more 
ink, will become considerably stronger, and the etching it down to the required 
strength is a very difficult operation, especially if the acid spreads at all, for 
light streaks and spots caused by the acid may appear anywhere in his drawing, 
the acid having run about on the stone without his perceiving it, and the 
slightest suoTCTestion of acid in the water will act on the stone. Another 
difficulty is that, though the etching may have produced the desired result, 
there is no evidence of it, because the black pigment in the chalk, or ink 
on the stone or plate, is not dissolved, and it is not till the design is again 
inked that the result of the etching becomes visible. The drawing upon the 
stone or plate in lithography is most deceptive. It is not the black pigment 
which absorbs or repels the water and grease, but the grease itself, and if it 
was not that one wanted to see the drawing, a perfectly invisible chalk or ink 
might be used, provided it was sufficiently charged with grease. A proof of 
this is the astounding return of a drawing, which has been washed off the 
stone with turpentine, and become invisible, for as soon as it is rolled up 
with ink it again becomes visible — the ink adheres to the grease in the stone 
or plate. But even when the printer and the artist together have got the 
stone or the plate into what they consider the right condition, it will be 
found that only with the utmost difficulty it can be kept there. For the 
least bit too little ink will make it a washed-out grey, or if the paper is 
not right the same thing will happen, or if there is too much ink on it, 
there is danger of its running together, or bunging up, and when this 
happens the drawing is usually ruined. Each print therefore requires in- 
creasing attention, and it requires the printer being as keen on getting a 
good proof as the artist. He can see, it is true, everything before him on 
the stone or plate, but to get the drawing to come off on the paper, as it 

278 




D. A. W'EHKSCHMIDT : OLD HaLL. 
Drawn on papei. 



OF PRESSES AND OF PRINTING 

looks on the stone, is a very difficult matter. If the method suggested 
previously, of drawing and printing on and from the same kind of paper, 
were universally practised, more certain results eventually would be ob- 
tained. But the drawing transferred to the stone, or made on it, always 
looks darker when it is wet on the stone, or the plate, than on the paper, 
and unless the drawing is put upon a light yellow or creamy coloured stone 
it is never like the print. The grey stones beloved of lithographers, and 
the grey zinc, resemble no sort of paper whatever, and not infrequendy the 
proofs are a very great surprise to the artist. In printing a lithograph 
the colour increases as it is printed, so the longer a design lasts the darker 
and fuller it becomes if the ink is good. There is small doubt that in the 
future artists will be — in fact they are — able to print tones on a single stone 
by wiping, as in etching. This is yet uncertain, but, generally speaking, a 
drawing begins to make a tone for itself as it prints — this the printer washes 
off, but if the tone is allowed to remain it will spread all over the stone or 
plate, and when right it can be reduced, or strengthened, by washing, or rubbing, 
where wanted. The printer thinks all such methods abominable ; the artist 
delights in them. 

The problem of colour printing, which is now much simplified, is worth 
separate discussion. Generally it is to be observed, that whether the artist 
does his own printing, or works with an intelligent printer, the best results 
can only be obtained by using the best materials and the greatest care ; 
though everything is visible both to the artist and the printer, as it is not in 
etching or engraving, it is infinitely easier to ruin a lithograph than any 
form of eneravinCT. All ena-ravingrs being either in relief or intaglio, the ink 
has far more hold upon them and their lines are not easily destroyed. In 
lithography the design, being produced with ink upon the surface of the 
plate or stone, can be damaged far more easily and repaired only with the 
greatest difficulty. But a lithograph is an original work of art, the multiplica- 
tion of the design. Etchings and wood-engravings are reproductions, but 
they to-day, and not lithographs, are much more prized by the collector and 
the dealer. In the immediate future lithography will be ranked with etching 
and wood-engraving, and the methods of printing, here outlined, will be practised, 
though they mostly are not yet. Endless new ways of printing will be dis- 
covered, for the art and science of lithographic printing are only in their 
infancv, though Senefelder suggested most of them. 



OF CORRECTIONS ON STONE OR METAL. 

In penwork on a smooth stone the part to be corrected is merely 
scratched out and then put in again and washed with acid and gum. But in 
the case of chalk or wash drawings on grained stones, more care is necessary, 

281 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

for if the grain is destroyed it is difficult to regrain a portion of it so as to 
make it similar to the oriijinal grain ; it can be done bv careful reCTrainino- 
of the place, but it is difficult ; if the drawing is washed out completely 
with benzine it is best ; if scratched out the surface of the stone mav be 
lowered also, and it will then hold ink and print black. In any case as 
little correcting should be done as possible while the drawing is being printed. 
Still, in the worst cases, a new grain can be added with sand. It is perfectly 
easy to make apparent corrections, and to make the whole design look 
right on the stone or metal ; but when it comes to be inked it frequently 
rolls up and the print looks worse than before, as it is difficult to get the 
same grain again. The grain of paper, too, is always different from the grain 
of stone. It is generally better to have the stone grain stronger than that of 
the paper, so that, if corrections have to be made on the stone, that grain 
will be the one which is seen. 

There is, however, one period in the work when corrections can be made 
easily and also when they usually produce the effect wanted — that is when the 
drawing on the stone or plate has been rolled up with ink but before it has 
been etched, though the gum must be washed off; even before it has been 
gummed is better : then the ink, chalk, or wash which is added adheres to 
the new work, just as to any other part of the drawing. But in any case 
as little scratching should be done as possible, though any amount of work 
may be added. But etching always removes the chalk or ink either from 
the tops of grains or between them, and what has been in an early proof a 
quiet, but slightly too dark tone, becomes, after etching, a mass of black dots 
almost impossible to get rid of 

The artist should leave his corrections, if possible, till the proof is dry, 
for the proof when first printed is not only different in colour from the stone, 
but greyer and weaker generally than it will appear when dry — or it may be 
darker ; therefore, if possible, corrections should not be made immediately a 
proof is pulled, though there is a great temptation to do so. The light in 
most printing shops, too, is bad, and the artist should take his proofs to his 
studio and go over them there in a proper light — which is a side light. 



282 





S|g- ^i» ! iy»aa «B>^- 



K. Ernest Jackson : Thk ■• Kube de Vki.oirs.' 
Drawn on stone, printed by the artist. 



OF THE DIFFERENT MANNERS 
OF LITHOGRAPHY 



CHAPTER XV 

THE TRANSFER MANNER. 

SENEFELDER said, in treating of this manner: "There is another 
manner in HthoL^raphy where the drawing or writing with the same 
unctuous composition is made on paper and is transferred from 
thence by artificial dissolution to the stone and printed from it. 
This manner is peculiar to the chemical printing, and I am strongly 
inclined to believe is the principal and most important part of my discovery. 
It will be of the utmost benefit to artists by enabling them to oht-MW facsiiiii/es 
of their drawinCTs." He further savs : " I have used either soft or hard ink 
and chalk, and the paper may either be prepared on purpose or not. The 
operation of transferring may be effected either with warm or cold stones. 
The writing may be either entirely dissolved or only in part. To describe 
all this, however, would take too much space." 

Though he says this is the most important part of his discovery and of 
the greatest value to artists, he never did describe it, and it is doubtful if he 
ever meant to. He only described the ordinary method of transferring, the 
cause of the invention of lithography, the method practised by all the early 
men. But there are certain statements and hints and suggestions in his book 
which, though forgotten or ignored for nearly a century, have been pieced 
together and put into practice by artists. But this method is known to 
scarcely any lithographers. 

This other method, when the paper is not prepared, is the one which is 
of the greatest interest to artists, and it has never been explained. Now it 
must be recollected that, from the very invention of the art, the lact was 
recognized, and Hullmandel and others state most distinctly that "a litho- 
graphic impression is not even a facsiiiiilc of the work of an artist of eminence, 
but the original drawing itself and this is a feature peculiar to lithography." 
And it is incredible that this wonderful art should have been for years 
abandoned by artists and prostituted by trade. Hullmandel, in the Preface 
to his same Art of Draiving on Stone, gives one reason when he says : 
" Disasters (in lithography) generally attributed by the disappointed artist to 
the printer, ought in most instances to be laid at his own door, it being 
premised that he entrusted his drawing to a good printer. The greater part 

285 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

of these failures are occasioned either by the draughtsman's want of experience 
or arise from his not attending to minute precautions." Duchatel's advice to 
the artist to think of his drawing and not of the stone or the paper is a million 
times better. " Artists were frightened away by detail and mystery." But 
the detail of drawing on transfer paper has never been put down, and there 
is no mystery ; but one does not yet know a perfect method of transferring. 

Transferring may be done in one of three ways. First, the transfer may 
be made on a sheet of ordinary drawing paper, and this put upon stone or 
metal. Secondly, it may be made on a sheet of prepared paper. And thirdly, 
and most important, the drawing may be preserved or not, that is, the design 
may leave the paper altogether and adhere to the stone, or it may only leave 
the paper in part. The papers have already been referred to. 

The method of transferring when the drawing leaves the paper entirely 
and adheres to the stone is known to all printers. The drawing is laid face 
downwards upon a board and the back thoroughly wet with a sponge dipped 
in either warm water, water and gum, water and acid, or turpentine. Senefelder 
says it must be sponged with very weak aqua-fortis until it is thoroughly wet, 
and that it should then be put for some time between sheets of blotting paper 
to get rid of the superfluous moisture, though this is not usually done. He 
also recommends that two or three sheets of blotting paper and a piece of 
taffeta silk should be used instead of the ordinary backing paper on the press. 
As soon as the drawing is sufficiently damped to lie flat, it is placed face 
downward upon a stone in the press, and then rapidly run through several 
times. On the tympan and the backing being lifted, the paper, with the 
drawing on it, should be found adhering tightly to the stone. It is again 
thoroughly washed with clean cold water and again several times run through 
the press. After this, hot water is poured upon it, and the sheet of paper, 
after a few minutes, is rubbed all over with the thumb and finger. If the 
operation has been properly done, the sheet of paper perfectly clean will come 
awav from the stone and the drawing will be found to have adhered to it. If it 
does not come away easily, more hot water should be poured on it and the paper 
allowed to soak. Too much rubbing may spoil the drawing. When made on 
prepared paper and treated in the same way, the half-dissolved composition will be 
seen grey or white on top of the drawing on the stone. The composition must then 
be very carefully washed off with water. If the paper was unprepared, the drawing- 
should be seen sharply on the stone. If it was done on a prepared paper, 
as described above, the composition being on the top of it, which has left the 
prepared paper, must be washed off with the greatest of care, as the drawing 
has not yet sunken into the stone and it is easy to smear, ruin, or wash it 
off entirely. The only thing which has happened to it is, that it is auto- 
matically reversed, and the side of the line which was the top becomes the 
bottom and adheres to the stone. If properly put down, there should be no 

286 




Edouard M^net : Portrait de Femme. 



OF THE DIFFERENT MANNERS OF LITHOGRAPHY 

change at all, except that it is reversed. But, unless the printer or artist is 
very skilful, it is easy to ruin the drawing by the paper slipping, doubling, 
stretching, or being unevenly wet. 

METHOD OF FIXING AND ROLLING UP. 

Some printers at once, as soon as the drawing is on the stone, dab it 
lightly with a sponge charged with gum and water, and put it aside for a day. 
Others put it aside at once without gumming, leaving it for a day to dry 
thoroughly and gum it the next day. As soon as the gum is dry, in either 
case, it can be rolled up, as explained in the printing chapter, and etched. 
The further treatment is exactly the same as with a drawing on stone. There is 
no description of drawing on stone, for one draws on stone or metals as on paper. 

Senefelder's method is quite different. Though he speaks of damping or 
soaking the drawino- first with weak nitric acid, which has the effect of etching 
it immediately, his plan of then using sheets of blotting paper as backing and 
running it through the press would dry it. Then, he says, a weak solution of 
a hundred parts of water to one of aqua-fortis should be poured over it. Then 
it should be washed until the paper is disengaged, and if the work seems to 
adhere thoroughly the solution of gum may be applied at once. And he refers 
to the fact that the drawing upon the stone, even though it is now supposed 
to be ready for printing, frequently looks weak, and he suggests that, to correct 
this weakness, while the gum is still on the stone, the printer should take a 
small piece of linen, cotton, or flannel, dip it in printing ink until it is thoroughly 
saturated, then rub the drawing upon the stone with this inky rag, and it will 
at once become black. This method is well known to printers, but it is 
dangerous, as the lines may easily spread or smear. Senefelder also speaks 
of the treatment of the stone, and he recommends that it should be warmed 
a little. If this is done extreme care is necessary, even more so in the case 
of metal plates, as the warm stone or plate causes the paper to adhere more 
strongly to the stone, and unless the greatest care is taken the drawing will 
be washed off along with the paper and everything lost. After this, the 
treatment of all drawings on the stone is the same. So little did Senefelder's 
contemporaries want to explain this transfer method, which they knew all 
about, and which was practised, that it is scarcely referred to by them, 
excepting for penwork, and they never really do explain the method, or only 
in the vaguest terms ; with them mystery began. 

TRANSFERRING AND PRESERVING DRAWINGS. 

The method just described is applicable to drawings on ordinary paper 
or on prepared paper. But the following method has never been described 

289 L 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

at all, though Senefelder's statement that the drawing- may leave the paper 
"only in part" proves that he had practised it. The drawing may be made 
with chalk or ink either on prepared or unprepared paper, it makes no 
difference whatever. The dry paper with the drawing on it is laid face 
downward on the stone, which also should be perfectly dry. A sheet of 
backing paper is then slightly damped with a sponge dipped in weak acid 
and water. The dry side of this paper, through which the acid will slightly 
penetrate, should be placed over the drawing on the press, covered with 
ordinary backing, and under great pressure run through the press as rapidly 
as possible four or five times.' The edge of the drawing may then be lifted 
with a penknife, and the artist and the printer will be able to see, first, 
whether the paper with the drawing on it is sticking to the stone, and next, 
what is more important, whether the design is still upon the paper while an 
offset or multiplication of it appears at the same time upon the face of the 
stone. If the drawing is seen, even like a ghost, on the stone, the paper, 
with the drawing on it, should be carefully removed. If not there, it must 
be run through again. The drawing when seen upon the stone will be 
probably weaker, but, if it is there, the paper should be removed at once, 
for if it is run through again it will probably commence to adhere to the 
stone, or the lines may double. Even if there is no colour, if the stone is 
looked at sidewise the shadows of the lines in colourless grease may be seen on 
it. Usually the paper can be removed with care. It is best to leave it on the 
stone for a day- — more grease will be absorbed and the paper can be lifted more 
easily. If it cannot, if it sticks so tightly, as very rarely happens, the previous 
method of transferring is to be followed, as the method now being- described is 
but the commencement of that. But if the drawing on the paper comes away 
from the stone as it should — it may have to be carefully lifted off with a 
knife — the design will be seen on the paper and on the stone as well, in 
reverse. What has occurred is that some of the grease has been extracted 
from the drawing on the paper, and attracted to the stone, to which it 
adheres by the slight dampness of the paper. All the colouring matter, 
the black pigment, remains on the paper and most of the grease. The 
drawing on the stone is now to be rolled up and etched in the way described 
above, only with the greatest possible care, as it is very delicate. It will 
require a great deal more rolling up and much more time and trouble than 
by the previous method. But once this has been done the result is quite 
the same, and if the drawing on the stone has lost or gained in any part, the 
artist has his version on the paper to compare it with and to correct it by, 
whereas, in the first case, he has nothing but the stone. Another inestimable 
advantage is that, if the drawing has not been well transferred, or if it becomes 

' I am now convinced that the drawing should under the greatest possible pressure only 
be run through the press once. 

290 




FeLICIEN ROPS : POKTKAIT OF ADELE DuTTE. 



OF THE DIFFERENT MANNERS OF LITHOGRAPHY 

smeared or under- or over-etched and so spoiled, or if the stone should break in 
printing, the drawing may be put down a second time, even after weeks or 
months. This certainly is one of the greatest discoveries in lithography, and the 
ability to transfer the same drawing twice and yet preserve it was apparently 
not known to Senefelder at all. How many times the drawing might be trans- 
ferred in this way is not known either. But the advantages to be obtained 
by this method are endless. The German method is described in Chapter VIII. 
With the decline of lithography and the discontinuance of artists to prac- 
tise it, the artistic use of transfer paper seems virtually to have ceased. It 
was only used for commercial purposes. Scarcely any of the modern text- 
books speak of it at all. Scarcely any modern lithographers know anything 
about it, and it is only within the last few years that its use has been revived. 
But this revival has made artistic lithography, and the credit for reviving this 
manner is due to Charles G(julding. 

THE TRACING MANNER. 

The aim of Senefelder and all the early lithographers was to supersede 
the wood and metal engraver. Consequently, long and elaborate instructions 
are given. Most of them are of little value to artists, but they may be briefly 
referred to. 

If a sheet of very thin bank-note paper is drawn upon, and the back of 
it rubbed with tallow and lamp-black — probably stumping chalk would do just 
as well — and this is laid upon the stone, and the drawing is gone over again 
with a pencil, or if a drawing is made with a pencil on a sheet of blank 
paper thus prepared on the back and laid on the stone, the grease will come 
off of the paper and adhere to the stone, which then may be etched and 
gummed up in the usual way. Senefelder carried this method considerably 
further and practised what he rightly described as 

THE SOFT GROUND MANNER, 

which, he says, is "very elegant." The face of a smooth polished stone is 
prepared with nitric acid and gum, or, he says phosphoric acid, nutgall and 
gum is better, and then washed with water and left to dry. When dry, it 
should be covered with a thin ground of tallow by means of a roller. Soft 
etching ground would undoubtedly do just as well. The ground must then be 
smoked with tapers, as an etching plate is. A sheet of drawing paper should 
then be laid on the face of the stone and the drawing made with a lead 
pencil. When the paper is lifted, the tallow will come away where the pencil 
has touched it and the design on the stone may be etched. It would be very 
much easier probably to practise this method on zinc. 

293 



OF COLOUR 
LITHOGRAPHY 



CHAPTER XVI 

SENEFELDER also invented chromo-lithography, and he says he 
believes that by his method, that is of superimposed colour, " oil 
and water colours may be soon perfectly copied." In this he was not 
successful, and, though some of his followers have made most 
astonishing copies, these have no more value as works of art than the work 
of any other copyist. And though, when printed on canvas or an imitation of 
canvas, they are highly deceptive for a moment, it is but a matter of technical 
perfection : there is no artistic merit about them, and the real outcome is the 
chromo-lithograph of commerce, which did an enormous amount of harm to 
lithography. The artist, however, may practise colour printing with as 
much freedom as black and white. The method to be followed is that 
of the Japanese colour printers, only it is far simpler and more direct and 
nothing like so laborious. The artist makes his drawing in black chalk in 
the ordinary way on stone or paper. From this drawing a number of offsets 
are made by the printer in some sort of colour or ink which does not sink 
into the stone, as it has no grease in it. This ink while wet is dusted over 
with red chalk. The artist has now to determine the colours he is going 
to use, or rather he must have determined the number before, for as many of 
these offsets are made as there are to be colours in the print. He takes the 
stone which he proposes, for example, to print in red, and goes over every 
line he wishes to print red with his black lithographic chalk. He gives the 
stone back to the printer, who, by washing it, removes all the red chalk offset, 
and only those lines which the artist has gone over with his black chalk 
remain on the stone. This, then, is the red stone. He proceeds to do the 
same thing with all the other colours on the other stones, and then gums, 
rolls up, and etches them, thus producing a mosaic picture which, if put 
together and printed, one stone after the other and the black as well, will, 
when all the stones are printed, produce the original design — the colour 
print he wants. He also has the original design in black, which may be printed 
either in that colour or any other as a key-block, or not used at all. It may 
be printed either first or last. This depends entirely on the subject. He 
should then mix, himself, a quantity of the colour he desires for each stone, 
and give the colours so mixed to the printer, who will ink the various colour 
stones, or the artist may do it himself. If he follows this method, exactly 

294 



.SKOTaaAJO .3 .v/ ic TiAJiTsiCJ tuoT.iiMAH aatJJaM .1 



,^^*'^- 



OF COLOUR 
LITHOGRAPHY 



<H AFTER XVI 

SF'^'^'' ■ •. , and he sa) :. 'ir, 

■nposed colour, " oil 
In this he was not 
' I' L' made most 
' than the work 
■ ^litation of 
• ■ ,' ' hnical 

, . -- nerit at' . >. the 

chromo commerce, which did an enorni 

liih' The artist, however, may practise coKt as 

ini.r '. iroedom as black and white. The method loiiowed is that 

of the Japanese culou: j';:);..--; , >' It is far simpler and more direct and 
nothing like so laborious*^ "fff?i'''SfL&^'"i'AH'l-fi?'..v»ti{B. gIadW^SK '" black chalk in 
the ordinary way on stone or paper. From this dra\. in^ a number of offsets 
are made by the printer in some sort of colour or ink which does not sink 
into the stone, as it has no grease in it. This ink while wet is dusted over 
with red chalk. The artist has now to determine the colours he is going 
to use, or rather he must have determined the number before, for as many of 
these offsets are made as there are to be colours in the print. He takes the 
stone which he proposes, for example, to print in red, and goes over every 
line he wishes to print red with his black lithographic chalk. He Hv<- the 
stone back to the printer, who, by washing it, removes all the n offset, 

and only those lines which the artist has gimc ov- black chalk 

remain on the stone. This, ther r »ceeds to do the 

'■■' thing with all the other coi^vir-. m' uu- >'i,M.r .k'mci, and then gums, 
'\ and etches them, thus producing a mo.saic picture which, if put 
and printed, one stone after the other and the black as well, will, 
whe stones are printed, produce the original design — the colour 

print he w;i N,o has the original design in black, which may be printed 

either in thai ny other as a key-block, or not used at all. It may 

be printed eitii.. mn '.>r last, lliis depends entirely on the subject. He 
should then mix, himself, a quantity of the colour he desires for each stone, 
and give the colours so mixed to the printer, who will ink the various colour 
stones, or the artist may do it himself If he follows this method, exactly 

294 



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OF COLOUR LITHOGRAPHY 

that of the Japanese, he will get pure rich colour. If he wishes a green, 
he must make it himself and not trust, as the chromo-lithographer does, to 
o-etting that green by printing a yellow over blue or a blue over yellow. 
The colour should be made right, and printed on the white or coloured 
paper, so that the paper shows through and gives a luminous brilliance to 
the print, which can be obtained in no other way, and is utterly lost when 
colours are superimposed. 

Another method, though a much more tedious one, practised by Whistler 
in his colour prints, is to make as many transfers as there are colours. 
Then those parts of the drawing that are not wanted, that is all but the 
red, for example, must be scratched or etched away, and the same for the 
other colours. Afterwards, the method of printing is just the same. And a 
third method is to place the thinnest tracing paper or composition over the 
drawine or stone and draw the various colours in black chalk on different 
sheets of that — first fixing the register marks, and then transferring these 
colour drawings to the different colour stones. 

The printing of colour is bv no means easy. In the ordinary chromo- 
lithographic fashion, as soon as a colour has been printed, the colour on 
that sheet of paper is allowed to dry. This means that the paper cannot 
usually be damped again, for, if it has been damped, then printed on and 
dried, if damped again it will probably get out of register, and if each 
colour is allowed to dry before the next is applied, it is very difficult to 
get over an effect of hardness whether the paper is damped or not. The 
perfect way of printing in colour would be to have as many presses as 
there are colour stones and shift the print from one to the other as fast 
as each colour is added. The difficulty of this is that, even with this 
mosaic method, if the drawing is at all complicated it is impossible to ink 
it without rubbing one colour into another, and still more impossible to 
print it, as the moist colour from the sheet of paper sets off upon the 
stone and would, after a few impressions, produce nothing but a smear. 
There are ways of using three or four colours at the same time, on 
two stones and by means of tinted paper getting a still further colour. If, 
for example, the artist wishes to make a print on blue paper a nocturne in 
four colours, he must first of all think out very carefully the colour design 
and the spacing and arrangement of the colours. He may then, with his sheet 
of blue paper properly damped, print first his white lights or yellow lights or 
red ones, or rather all three of them together, by using three rollers, one 
charged with white, the second with yellow, the third with red ink. If the 
print is then shifted to another press alongside, the second printer may roll 
the main part of the design up, first in weak transparent blue through which 
the white, yellow, or red, which must be made of very opaque colour, will 
show, and then, with another roller, go over those parts which are intended 

T * 

297 L 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

to be stronger with a stronger blue or black before pulling the print. 
When pulled, the print will look as if it had been printed six times, and 
in drying, the colours, as in a painting, will all dry in together and there 
will be a skin over it all, which can be obtained in no other way. There 
are many other ways of making colour prints, but this, which is only a 
variation of the Japanese method, is the simplest and the best and one 
which the artist can and should use. Another charming way of introducing 
colour at times, similar to that of the copper-plate colour printers, may be 
got from one single stone by mixing up the various colours and putting 
them on with small rollers, stumps, or rags, or putting just a bloom or blush 
of colour over some part of the drawing with a rag. Colour printing, however, 
is only just, owing to Whistler and the Japanese, beginning to be practised 
by artists. Far the greater number of artists, and especially those who are 
supposed to make posters and do other colour work, know nothing about it. 
The drawings of these men are usually made in oil, water-colour, or pastel, 
handed over to professional lithographers who copy them, enlarging or reducing 
them mechanically, and the artist calmly signs the poster he had nothing 
to do with making : that is, when he is allowed to sign it, for sometimes 
the printers take all the credit. By the method described above any 
artist can do colour work. A practical example is in the posters done 
in this way for the London Underground Railways, in the spring of 191 4, 
by certain members of the Senefelder Club, only one or two of whom 
had ever drawn a poster before, but they were artists who understood 
lithography. 



298 




Henri de Groux : La Vigne Abandonne. 



OF THE WASH 
MANNER 



CHAPTER XVH 

SENEFELDER describes Wash Drawing as India Ink Drawing, though 
the first method he describes has nothing apparently to do with wash or 
India Ink either, but is similar to what he calls the Tint Manner, in 
which a flat ground composed of either a thin layer of grease or etching 
ground is put on the plate and the design is scratched out with a mezzotint 
scraper and points. It is then bitten with phosphoric acid and washed with 
gum water. If the stone is now washed with turpentine, the grease or ground 
will come off and the drawing scratched in the stone may be printed. This 
is not in any sense a wash drawing, however. 

What Senefelder calls the second manner is the genuine manner of making 
wash drawings. He says the stone must be prepared with a coarse grain, 
thoroughly washed with soap and water, cleaned with turpentine, and left to dry. 
Then, if ink containing much soap is dissolved in rain water, the design may 
be made on the stone in wash exactly as it would be done on paper. When 
it is finished and dry, the whole surface can be rubbed with a brush or cloth 
to make sniall holes in the colour, really to let the grain on the stone come 
through. It should then be bitten with acid and washed with gum water 
in the usual manner. As these wash drawings are very delicate, very weak 
acid must be used, and Senefelder recommends that the stone should be 
surrounded by a border of wax or by rubber bands, which are better and 
simpler, though most likely if the acid was applied with a brush the result 
would be truer. His reason for using a bath is that the ground is so 
sensitive that he thought it not possible, except by changing the acid, to 
get rid of the bubbles made by the acid, which adhere to the stone and 
prevent it biting. He also says that frequently the washes will be found to 
be too light owing to many holes being bitten in the stone. The experience 
of most modern artists is that the washes are too black and have to be 
scraped down. He explains that by this method prints may be made by 
rubbing in the ink with a rag. He points out that by putting on a flat 
wash of colour and biting it in this manner tint plates may be made for 
chalk drawings, and he concludes by saying that this manner "deserves to 
be more known and practised by artists than it has hitherto been." 

This manner, despite his experiments, does not seem to have been 
practised to any great extent by Senefelder, but was by Hullmandel, and. 



LITHOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHERS 

moreover, patented by him. He used a dabber for applying the colour and 
the artists who practised it, like Harding, acquired the greatest skill in its 
use. Whether Cattermole used this method, or pure wash, it would be 
difficult to say. Some of the most perfect lithographs technically, like 
those of Isabey, look, as they were intended to, like wash drawings. But 
if they are closely examined with a magnifying glass, they will be found 
to have been done with chalk. Undoubtedly Raffet and Charlet did make pure 
wash drawings in lithographic ink, and in England, Whistler, with the help of 
Way, revived or rather developed this method. Lithographic ink is ground 
down in a heated saucer, or, better, two or three, for different tones. It is 
mi.xed with distilled water and used just like a water colour. Duchatel says 
turpentine is better as a medium, but there is no fixed rule or method. This 
wash manner is difficult to work for two reasons. First, as soon as the 
colour touches it, the stone becomes very much darker, though there is no 
more difficulty about this than there is about body-colour drawing. And the 
second difficulty is that each tone must be right, as it is very difficult to go 
over a wash already put down with another without disturbing the first. This, 
however, is also true of many watercolours. In fact, a wash drawing on stone 
is very like a drawing in charcoal grey watercolour on paper. Both are 
equally difficult to work over and correct. It was thought until lately that 
this method was peculiar to the stone, but T. R. Way found that drawings 
could be made on paper equally well and transferred.' When once upon the 
stone and the ink is thoroughly dry, the surface of the stone must be 
rubbed with a cloth or flannel in order to break up the tones of colour 
and leave the tops of the grains showing through it. If this is not done 
the drawing will print perfectly black or in a flat tone all over. The stone 
is then treated in the ordinary way. If too dark, as usually is the case, the 
drawing being on a grained stone, it may easily be scraped with a penknife, 
or scraper, the jumper, or etched. Chalk and pen work can be done either at 
the same time, or over the wash, or before the wash is put on. But, like 
mezzotinting, it is by no means so simple as it looks, and, though many of the 
wash drawings look direct and spontaneous, in most cases those qualities are 
obtained only by very elaborate work. This is one of the methods in litho- 
graphy that should again be revived and practised, as most beautiful results 
can be obtained, though, at present, comparatively little has been done 
with it. 

OTHER MANNERS. 

Senefelder and other authorities, especially the earlier writers, describe 
numerous methods for doing away with etching and engraving ; but these 
are not the functions of artist lithographers. If any one wishes to practise 

' And this is also done in Germany. 

502 




E. CaKKILKL : WuMAN a UliAD. 



OF THE WASH MANNER 

them the directions are all in Senefelder. In the later manuals, such as Rich- 
mond's Grammar of Lithography, the commercial and mechanical methods are 
described, as well as the use of steam cylinder presses and photo-lithography. 

STUMP MANNER. 

Ordinary stumping, rubbing the stump in lithographic chalk {crayon estompe), 
is little used in England, but the results obtained are delightful. Rags, flannel, 
or skins may be also employed. The drawing on stone made in this way is 
very deceptive — it at first prints very lightly — and it should be slowly coa.xed 
by pulling repeated proofs, which usually grow stronger, and then suddenly it 
becomes very black. The etching, too, is difficult, as not infrequently the acid 
removes all the stump effect in a moment. 

TINT MANNER. 

Tints may be made either by covering the stone or paper with a flat tone 
of chalk, by rolling or washing ink on them. The e.xact size of the tint is 
fixed, and the rest of the stone is painted over with gum and acid — stopped 
out. When dry it is inked — the ink adheres to the ungummed portion. It 
is then rolled up with ink of the desired colour for the tint and printed over 
the drawing. If lio-hts are wanted, a set-off must be made on the tint and 
lights may be scratched, or the tone lighted, using the set-off as a guide ; if 
these parts are then gummed and etched, after strong inking the lights will 
print. 

CONCLUSION. 

In the preceding pages most, if not all, of the manners the artist will 
practise, and the tools and materials he will use, are described. He will 
find new and endless methods of employing them, for for fifty years scarcely 
any experimenting has been done, and the opportunities are ine.xhaustible 
and untried. By the time he has practised all these methods, or those he 
invents, if he is an artist, he may make a series of masterpieces, and then 
may he repeat and echo the words with which Senefelder ended his story 
in The Complete Course of Lithography : " May the day be blessed when 
I created it. May my work find many friends and produce many excellent 
lithographers." 



305 



OF PROOFS AND 
EDITIONS 



CHAPTER XVIII 

ONE unjust allegation that has been made against lithography, and 
has injured it, is that unlimited editions — it is said — can be printed 
from stone. So they can from copper, only in neither case do 
artists do such things. A copper plate may be steeled, or electro- 
typed, and endless prints may be made — and endless prints may be made by 
transferrino- a desion to several stones. 

But the artist, in the case of etchings, can rarely print more than one 
hundred proofs from an unprotected plate, and no more can be made, or 
should be made, from the stone. The Senefelder Club has limited its editions 
to fifty — and then erased the drawing. The professional commercial lithographer 
nearly killed the art — as an art — but there are now all about us signs and proofs 
of the revival of the most autographic of the graphic arts, and its future is 
secure — it has triumphed in the hands of artists who have returned to it, as 
innovators and experimenters and enthusiasts, and now can Senefelder truly 
sav of his beloved art and craft, "Blessed be the hour in which I invented it." 



306 




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A. WiLLETTE : Fortune. 
Printed by Lemevcier. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abbey, E. A., Artist 

Abridgement of Patents 89 

Academie des Beaux-Arts, Paris ... 41 
Academy of Science, Munich . . 10, 1 1 

Ackermann, R., Printer . 6, 18, 25, 26, 

89, 97, 98, loi, 102 

Adam, Victor, Artist 61 

Advertiser for Arts and Manufactures {See 
Anzeiger fiir Kiinst und Gewerb- 
fleiss). 

Aglio, A., Artist loi 

Aiken, Artist 106 

Albemarle, The 133 

Album du Salon . . . . . .81 

Album, Journal des Arts, de laLiticrature, des 

Mci-urs et des Theatres, L . . . 70 
Album of the Artists of Vienna . . . 201 

Artists who contributed to . . .201 
Albums, Lithographic ..... 53 
Alexandre, Arsene, Author .... 177 

Algraphie 206 

Allan, R. W . 121 

Allen and Ferguson, Printers . . .121 

Alophe, Menut, Artist 81 

American Art Review, The . . . .221 

American Lithographic Co., Printers . . 225 

Analectic Magazine, The .... 217 

Andre, Frederick, Printer . . -17) 18, 37 

Andre, Philip, Printer . . 17, 18, 89, 90, 93, 94 

Andre, Philip H. {See Philip Andre). 

Anger, Papermaker 

Annates des Arts et Manufactures 

Annual Register 

Anquetin, Artist 

Antiquities of Westminster, The 

Anzeiger fiir Kunsi und Gewerbfleiss 

SchlichtegroU's Papers in 
" Ape," Artist .... 
Aranjo, Artist 
Arenberg, Prince d' 

Aretin, Baron, Printer . . 21, 2 

Art du Rire et de la Caricature, 
Art en Province, L . 
Art Journal, The . 
Art of Drawing on Stone, The. 
Art Worker's Guild, Lecture at 

Portfolio made at 
Arte en Espaila, El . 
Artiste, V . 70, 77, 78, 81, 118, 134, 193, 



241 

39 
89 

174 
129 

25 

25 
137 
210 
202 
189 
177 
78, 81 
134 

94 
'33 
133 
210 



PAGE PAGE 

i37i 153 Artistes Ancicns et Modernes .... 82 
89 Artistes Conteniporains ..... 82 
Arts and Crafts, Central School of . . xii 
Arts, Royal Society of . . xii, 25, 89, 94, 97 
Arundel Society, The ..... 106 
Atthalin, Baron, Amateur ... 45, 54 

Aubert, Publisher 66, 81 

Aubry-Lecomte, Artist . . 54. 81 

Audebert, P. A., Artist 169 

Audubon 106, 221 

AiisK'ahl der vorziiglichsten Gemlilde dcr 
herzoglichen Letichtenbergischen Ge- 
mlilde Galerie, etc. . 
Auto-lithograph .... 

Azeglio, d' 

Baedeker's Guides .... 
Bahuet, Artist .... 
Ballantyne and Robertson, Printers 
Baltard, Engraver .... 
Balzac, H. de. Author . 
Bankes, H., Author 
Bargue, Charles, Artist . 
Barker, A. R 

The Theatre .... 
Barker, T., Artist .... 
Barnard, G., Artist 
Barnett and Doolittle, Printers 
Barriere, Printer .... 

Picturesque Views of Belgium . 
Barr}-, James, Artist 
Barye, A. L., Artist 
Bath Stone ..... 
Bauer, M. A. J., Artist . 

The Sphinx .... 
Baugninet, C, Artist 
Beardsley, Aubrey, Artist 
Beauger, Publisher 
Becker, H 

The Mower .... 
Beckwith, J. C, Artist . 
Belfond, E., Printer 
Beliard, Printer .... 
Bellange, H., Artist 
Belleroche, Artist .... 
Beraldi, Henri, Author . 
Berangcr .... 
Beraud, Jean, Artist 
Bergeret, Artist 

His Drawing of Mercury 
202, 210 French Lithograph 



190 

134 
213 
242 
169 

93 
46 

73 
94 



251 

90 

114 

217 

202 

202 

90 

70 

101 

206 

211 

117 

201 

81 

157 

259 



166, 173 

74 
61 

157. 178 
57) 66. 77. 165, 209 
61, 81 

• 173 

27,37 
first 

27 



the 



509 



INDEX 







PAGE 


Berry, Duchesse de, Amateur 




• 45 


Besnard, P. A., Artist . 




. 178 


Bewick, Thomas, Artist 




• 5.93 


Bichebois, L. P. A., Artist . 




• 57 


Bien, Julius, Printer 




221, 225 


Billoin, Artist. 




• 20s 


Birds of Amcrjca, Audubon's 




. 106 


Birds of the World, John Gould's 




. 106 


Blake, William, Artist . 




[o, 91, 93 


Polyaiitograpli . 




• 91 


Blanchard, R., Artist . 


57, 8i, 2IO 


Blanche, J. E., Artist . 




. 178 


Blanco, Artist 




• 213 


Blare, E., Artist . 




97 


Bocklin, Artist 




. 201 


Bodmer, Karl, Artist 




• 214 


Boilly, L., Artist . 




26, 65 


Bonington, R. P., Artist 


31. 57. 


58, 




105 


no, 113 


Petite Nonnandie . 




• "3 


Gros-Horloge a Rouen 




31. 57 


Viies Pittoresques en Ecosse 




■ 113 


Gros-Horloge, Evreux 




• 113 


Work for Baron Taylor . 




■ 57 


Bosio, J. F., Artist . 




■ 6s 


Bouchot, H., Author 




■ 6s 


Boulanger, Louis, Artist 


66, 67, 6q, 70 


Ronde dit Sabbat 




66, 67 


Bourgeois, C, Artist 




42,54 


Boys, T. S., Artist . 


57. no 


114, 117 


Views of Paris . 




. 114 


Bracquemond, Felix, Artist . 




163, 170 


Brangwyn, F. . . . 




• 157 


The Docks 




• 247 


Bregeaut, L. R., Printer 




45.53 


Bricher, A. T., Artist . 




. 221 


Britannia Dctiiieaia 




. 102 


British Museum, Print Room 


93 


141, 209 


Brooks, Vincent, Printer 




■ 137 


Brown, Ford Madox, Artist . 




• 129 


Brown, J. G., Artist 




. 222 


Brown, John Lewis, Artist 




• 173 


Bruci, Printer 




46, 209 


Bry, A., Printer 




53.62 


Buffa, Publisher . 




• 205 


Buhot, Felix, Artist 




. 181 


Buonaparte, Napoleon [Sec Napol 


eon I.) 




Burggraaf, Publisher 




. 202 


Burty, P., Author . 




. 82 


Cadart and Chevalier, Publis 


hers 


ind 


Printers . 




■ 165 


Calame, Alexandre, Artist 




• 214 


Carbonnier, C, Artist . 




loi, 102 


Carderera, Valentin, Artist and ± 


Author 


209, 210 


Caricature, La ... 


. 70, 


73. 74. 81 


Carrick, Robert, Artist . 




114, 121 


Turner's Vessel Burning Bhu 


Lights 


at 


Sea .... 




. 121 



178, ig8, 206 
• 3"3 



Carriere, E., Artist . 

Woman's Head 

Cassajus, V. M., Printer .... 

Cassatt, Mary, Artist 

Catalogue of Centenary Exhibition in Paris. 
Catalogue of the Exhibition at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts ..... 
Catalogue of Fantin-Latour's Lithographs, 
Germain Hediard's .... 
Catalogue of the Grolier Club Exhibition 

206, 
Catalogue of Whistler's Lithographs, T. R. 

Way's . . 130, 133, 141, 146, 
Catalogues of Norwich Art Circle. 

Catlin, Artist 

Cattermole, George, Artist . . 114, 214 

A Dcath-Btow .... 
Cawdor, Lord, Amateur 
Challamel, P. J., .Artist and Publisher 
Chalon, J. J., Artist 

Chapuis, Dr 

Chapuy, N. M. J., Artist 

Cliarivari, Le . . . 70, 73, 74, 81, 118, 

Charles X 

Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria 
Charlet, N. T., Artist . 26, 53, 54, 61, 70, 

105, 109. 21; 

Albums 

Tireurs de la Compagnie Infcrnalc 

Croquis a la Maniire Noire 
Charpentier, F., Artist . 
Chasseriau, Theodore, Artist . 
Chauvel, T., Artist .... 
Chavannes, P. Puvis de, Artist 
Cheney, J., Engraver 
Cheret, Jules, Artist . . 
Chevallier, J. B. A. (and Langlume), Printers 
Choris, Louis, Artist 
Chromo-Lithography . 46, 54, 122 
Ciceri, Eugene, Artist . 
Claus, E., Artist .... 
Clausen, George, Artist . 
Coindet, Printer .... 

Cole, J. F., Artist 

Cole, Thomas 

CoUeccion lithographica de cuadros del Rey de 
Espana, etc. [See the Prado Gallery) 
Colnaghi, P. and D., Publishers . 109, 113, 
Cologne, Work Exhibition . . . xii, 
Complete Course of Lithography, A . xi, 9, 25, 

26, 89, 97, 234; 
Conder, Charles .... 

The Cabaret .... 
Consen<atoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris 
Coopor, R., Artist .... 
Cooper, T. Sidney, Artist 
Copley, John T. T. . . . vii, 157 

Rcmi ....... 

Corbould, H., Artist .... 97 

;io 



61 



130, 294, 
57.81, 



210 

225 
37 

165 

173 

217 

153 
133 
221 
302 
103 

93 

81 

102 

214 

57 

193 

45 

10 

302 

61 

35 

,70 

178 

78 

82 

198 

22 1 

166 

53 
214 
301 
114 
203 



137. 157 
. 46 

222 

. 218 



210 
121 

238 

305 
150 

271 

38 

90 

117 

159 
159 
102 



J 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Corbould, R., Artist .... 90, 97 
Corot, J. B. C, Artist . 78, 81 

Cotman, J. S., Artist 117 

Cotta, J. G., Publisher 190 

Courbet, G., Artist .... 78, 165 

Counier Franfais, Le 181 

Courrier and Ives, Printers .... 222 

Co.x, David, Artist 117 

Coxa, C, Artist 222 

Craene, F. di, Artist .... 109, 210 
Cranach, Artist ...... 189 

Crolier, C, Author 138 

Cruikshank, G., Artist .... 61, 109 
Curtis, Atherton, Author . . 57, 214, 222 
Daguerre, L. J. M., Artist, late Photographer 54 

Darley, F. O. C, Artist 221 

Dasio, Max, Artist . 
Daumier, H., Artist 



197, 201 
61,73.74.75.77.79, 



03. 170. 173 



174, 178, 206 
• 77 



Flaubert 



Robert Macuire 

Ariislcs en train, etc. 

Le Venire Legislatif . 

A Sainte-Pelagie 

La Rue Transnonain 

Series of Lithographs for 
Daurat, A., Artist . 
Dauzats, A., .\rtist . 
David, J. L., Artist 
Davies, A. B., Artist 
Dav, Printer . 
Day & Haghe {Sec Day). 
Day and Son (See Day). 
De Cailleux, A., Author . 
De Serres 
Decamps, A. G., Artist . 

His Caricatures 
Degas, H. G. E., Artist . 
Delacroix, E., .Artist . 57, 59, 61, 69, 70, 78, 81 

His opinion of Charlet . 

Macbeth and the Witches, by 

Faust, illustrated by 

Tigrc Royal, by 

Lion de L Atlas, by 

Gcciz de Berlichingen, illustrated by 

Hamlet, illustrated by 
Delamotte, R., Artist 
Delpech, F., Printer 
Denis, E., Artist 
Denon, Vivant, Artist 

Portraits by . 
Deroy, E., Artist . 

Portrait of Baudelaire . 
Desguerrois & Co., Publishers 
Deveria, Achille, Artist 

66, 69, 70, 71, 109, 117 

La Conversation Anglaise, hy . . . 69 

Portrait of Lemercier • ■ • • 55 

Portraits by . . . . . .70 

Deveria, Eugene, Artist .... 70 



75 

• 77 

• 79 

• 83 
206 

. 210 
57. 81 
■ 41 



57, 106, 109, n8, 121, 137 



54 
21 

o. 73. 109. -14 
73 
178 
81 
61 
. 69 
. 69 
. 69 
59. 67. 69 
. 69 
. 69 
. 90 

42, 53. 54. 65 

178 

26, 41, 42, 45 

. 42 

58. 73. 243 

• 243 

• 205 
53. 55. 57. 





PAGE 




202 


• 134 


149 


. . 70, 78 




101 




105 


54. 81 




lOI 




177 




178 




225 




xiii 




190 




222 




210 




78 




94 




218 




213 




213 


106, 


117 




210 



153. 



Dewasmes, Publisher . 
Dial, The .... 
Diaz de la Pcna, N. V., Artist 
Dibdin, T. F., Author . 
Dickinson, ]., Publisher 
Didot, Publisher . 
Dighton, Dennis, Artist 
Dillon, H. P;', Artist 
Dinet, E., Artist . 
Dodge, O., Artist . 
Dodgson, Campbell 
Dominic, Artist 
Donoho, R., Artist . 
Donon, Printer 
Dore, Gustave, Artist 
D'Orsay, Count, Amateur 
Doughty, Thomas, Artist 
Doyen, Camillo, Printer 
Doyen, Michele, & Co., Printers 
Doyle, J. (H. B.), Artist 
Dresden Galler}^ . 
Duchatel, E., Printer and Author 

166, 173, 262, 265, 286, 

Traitc de Lithographic Artistiqiie . 153, 

166, 173, 263 
Dumond, \V., Artist 
Dumont, Maurice, Artist 
Duplat, Engraver .... 
Dupre, Jules, Artist 
Diirer, A., Artist .... 
Diisscldorfer Kiinstler Album . 

Artists who contributed to 
Diisscldorfer Monathejte . 

Artists who contributed to 
Dutch Gallery, The 

Artists who contributed to 
Duval, P. S., Printer 
Duval and Hunter (See P. S. Duval) 
Eckout, Artist .... 
Ekeman-Allesson, L., Artist . 
Elements of Drawing, Reference to Litho- 
graphy in 1 1 o 

Engelmann, Godefroi, Printer . 6, 26, 37, 
41. 42. 46, S3- 54, 61, 65, 70, 
105, 106, 178, 206, 217, 218, 253 



302 



. 117 
. 181 

. . 38 
70, 214 

21, 189, 190 
193 
193 
193 
193 
205 

205 
218, 221 

202 
• 214 



His Shop at Mulhouse .... 

Comes to Paris 

Invents the name Chromo-lithography . 

Starts a House in London . 46, 105 

Traite Theoriquc et Pratique de Litho- 
graphic ...... 

Prints Baron Taylor's Voyages Pitlo- 

resques 

Engelmann, Graf, Coindet & Co . 
Engraving on Stone 
Espagnat, Georges d'. Artist 
Estampc Originate, L . 149, 153 



41 

42 

46 

106 

46 



Etching on Stone 



■ 54 

46, 105, 218 

9, 10, 13, 237 

• 177 
169, 174, 
177, 178, 197 
. 9, 10 



;ii 



INDEX 



Eugene, Prince (Eugene Beauharnais) . 22 

Exhibition of Black-and-White in Paris . 105 
Exhibitions of Lithographs — 

In Cologne xii, 238 

In New York (at the Grolier Club) 

206, 218 



In Paris (Centenary Exhibition at the 
Champ-de-Mars) . . . . 
In Paris (Ecole des Beaux-Arts) 



At South Kensington 

In Vienna 

In Leipzig 
Fairland, Thomas, Artist 
Fantin-Latour, H., Artist 



Roses 

Idyl 

His Use of Paper . 
Farney, H. F., Artist 
Fauchon, H., Artist 
Fechner, H., Artist 
Ferdinand VII 
Festa, Felice, Printer . 
Figaro Lithographe 
Fischer, J. G. P., Artist 
Fischer, Otto, Artist 

//; the Wood . 
Fisher, T., Author 

Foire en Traitsylvanie, by Lancedelly 
Forain, J. L., Artist 
Foster, Printer 
Fortuny, M., Artist 
Fragonard, A. E., Artist 
Frangais, L. F., Artist . 
Franklin Institute, The 
Frenz, A., Artist 
Fuch, G., Artist . 
Fudge, ]., Artist . 
Fuseli, Henry, Artist 
Gabain, Ethel 

The Revellers . 
Gaillot, B., Printer 
Galcrie dc la Diicliesse de Berry 
Galcric Liltiographiee de Soti Altesse Royale 

Monseigneitr le Due d'OrUan 
Galleria dc Torino .... 
Gallery of the King of Sardinia 
Gandara, Artist .... 

Gandell 

Gaulon, Printer .... 
Gavarni, Artist . 63, 66, 67, 70, 71, 73, 

74, 77, 81, 82, 105, 150, 174 

Recreations diabolico-fantasmagoriques . 174 

LeBal Masque . . . . 67,81 

His Work for L' Artiste . 

Portrait of the de Goncourts 

Thomas Vireloque 

Series of Lithographs 



. 169 

165, 

166, 173 

xiii, 90 

. 201, 238 

xi, xii 

. 106 

137, 149, 163, 

165, 173. 174. 



183 
163 

183 



i/3 
221 
i6g 
198 
209 
213 
169 

93 
198, 199 

, 199 

. 90 

4S. 201 

• 174 
81, lor 

• 213 
54.70 

81, 169 

217, 218 

198, 201 

. 169 

. 102 

. 90 

151. 157 

• 151 
45.46 
. 81 



81 
213 

213 

178 

98 

210 



• 74 

• 63 
7'. 74 



Geheimniss des Steindrucks, Das (See Secret of 

Lithography). 
Geiniilde der Briider Boisscrce 

Gemiildc der Pinakothek 

Gentleman's Magazine, The .... 
Gentz, J., Artist 



Gericault, T., Artist 



190 

190 

90 

198 



47. 54. 61, 65, 105, 106 



47 



73. «i 



54. 



134 



Subjects Drawn from Life and on Ston 

First Lithographs . 

His Drawing on Stone Paper 

The Boxers 
Gerold, Karl, Publisher 
Gigoux, Jean, Artist . . .70 

Satisfaction, by 

His Portraits . 

Do. of Tony and Alfred Johannot 
Gihaut, Printer 
Gil Bias Illustre . 
Gilbert, Achille, Artist . 
Gilbert, Alfred, Artist . 
Gilloiage .... 
Gillray, James, Artist 
Girardin, E. de, Author 
Girodet, Trioson, Artist 
Glackens, Artist 
Gleissner 

Goethe .... 
Goghe, Van, Publisher . 
Goncourt, Edmond and Jules de. Authors 

63.69 

Portraits of, by Gavarni 
Gonin, E., Artist . 
Gould, John, Author 

Birds of the World . 
Gould, Mrs. J., Artist 
Goulding, Charles, Printer 



65 
61 

65 
106 

25 

130 

73 

73 

73 

61, 6s 

174 
82 

137 
78 

93 
,70 

41 

225 

10 

69 

205 



66 



.73 
63 
213 
106 
106 
106 



Goulding, Frederick, Printer 
Goupil, Publisher 
Gova, F., Artist . 



134. 137. 149. 
153. 154. 157. 
• 153. 154. 



293 

157 



133. 158. 178 



xiii, 66, 69, 209, 
213. 231 



Bull-Fights, by 

Caricatures Espagnoles, after 

The Bull-Fight 

Portrait . 
Graf, Printer . 

Grammar of Lithography, The 
Grandville, ]. J., Artist . 
Graves, Publisher . 
Gravesande, C. Storm van 's. Artist 
Green, Charles, Artist . 
Gregor, J., Printer 
Greiner, Otto, Artist 

The Dance 
Grethe, Carlos, Artist 
Grevedon, P. L., Artist 
Griggs, W., Printer 
Grolier Club . 
Grolier Club Catalogue . 



209, 



235 
213 
209 
231 
235 
46, 105, 2l8 

257. 30s 
. 66 
. 109 

205, 206 
■ 130 
• 225 

201 
191 
198 

73 

225 

. 218 

206, 217 



191, .198, 



137. 



312 



INDEX 



177. 205, 299 
• 299 

]oi, io6 
. 106 
. 106 

. 218 
121 

45 
169 

65 

-,8 



45. 



Gros, Baron, Artist 

Groux, Henri de, Artist . 
La Vigiie Abainloniii 

Guaci, M., Artist . 

Guaci, Paul, Artist. 

Guaci, William, Artist . 

Guerin, C. G., Artist 

Guerin, Pierre, Artist 

The First Artistic Lithograpl 

Guillon, P. E., Artist . 

Guillot, Artist 

Guyot-Desmaries, Artist 

H. B. {See J. Doyle). 

Haghe, L., Artist . 57, 102, 106, 115, iiS, 

122, 202, 214 

Tl!e Simoon 115 

Picturesque Sketches of Belgium . .118 
Roberts' //o/>' Z-(7;;(/ . . . ■ nS 
Roberts' Destruction of Jerusalem . . 118 

Hall, S. C, Author 114 

Hall, Oliver, Artist .... 153, 157 

Hamilton, James, Artist . . . .221 

Hamilton, J. McLure, Artist . . 153, 157, 295 
Portrait of Gladstone .... 295 
Hanfstangi, F., Artist and Printer . 3, 

23, 82, 109, 190, 194, 210 
His Portrait of Senefelder ... 3 
Portrait after Van der Heist ... 23 
Work for the Dresden Gallery . . 190 

Hanhart, Printer 46 

Harding, J. D., Artist . 57, 99, 102, 105, 

no, 113, 114, 121, 122, 213, 302 



From Pai'k and Forest . 

Sketches at Home and Abroad 

Roberts' Holy Land 
Harley, S., Artist . 
Hart, C, Artist and Printer 
Hartley, Alfred, Artist . 
Hartrick, A. S. 

Betsey . . 
Haskell, Ernest, Artist . 
Hausmann, B., Author . 
Haverman, H. J., Artist 

Mother and Child . 
Heaphy, Artist 
Hearne, T., Artist . 
Heath, Charles, Engraver 
Heath, J., Engraver 
Heinemann, William, Publisher 
Herbert, J. R., Artist . 
Herkomer, H. von, Artist 
Hervier, Adolphe, Artist 

Landscape 
Hewitt,, G., Artist . 
Hinshaw, Glen 
Hodebert, E., Artist 
Hogarth, J., Publisher . 
Hogarth Sketches . 
Hohe, F., Artist . 



99. 



106, 



15I; 



206, : 



Hole, W., Artist . 
Holloway, C. E., Artist . 

Portfolio of Ten Sketches 
Holme, Charles, Editor . 
Homer, Winslow, Artist 

Campaign Sketches . 
Hope, Miss. A. E., Artist 
Hoytema, T. van. Artist 
Hue, A., Artist 
Huet, Paul, Artist . 
Hulin, Madame, Publisher 
HuUmandel, C, Printer 



114 
114 
118 

lOI 

225 

137 

267 

267 

225 

21 

:iS 

:i5 

98 

go 

93 
90 



. 109 
. 201 

7«. 239 

• 239 

• 157 

• 225 
. 169 

114 
130 
190 



PAGE 

. igo 

137. 150 
. 150 

• 134 

218, 221 
. 221 

• 157 
. 206 
. 81 

54, 70, no, 214 
. . . 65 
25. 46, <Jf5, 70. 



89, 94, 97, 98, 99, loi, 102, 105, 106, 

no, n4, 237, 253, 257, 265, 28s, 301 



His Lithotint . 

Twenty-four Views of Italy 

Catalogue of Works 

Art of Drawing on Stone 
Hunt, Holman, Artist . 
Hunt, W. M., Artist 
Hymans, H., Artist 
I bcls, H. G., Artist 
Iconografia Espaiiola 
Ingres, J. A. D., Artist . 

His Odalisque, reproduced by 

Papier Ingres . 
Institut dc France 
Isabey, Eugene, Artist 



Sudre 



70, n4 
94, lOI 
102 
28s 
129 
218 
205 

174 
210 

54,81 
81 
266 
37 



45, 51,54,57,58, 
214, 



io6. 



Environs de Dieppe . 

Souvenirs de . 

Work for Voyages Pittoresques 

Six Marines dessinces sur Pierre 
Isabey, J. B., Artist 
Isis Medal, The ... 
Israels, J., Artist 
Jacott, ]., Artist 
Jackson, F. E. 

Robe de Velours 
Jacque, C, Artist . 
Jeanniot, G. P., Artist . 
Jobard, Jean Baptiste, Printer 
Johannot, Alfred, Artist 
Johannot, F., Printer 
Johannot, Tony, Artist . 
Jollivet, J., Artist . 
Jones, Owen, Artist and Author 

The Athambra . 
'Journal de Beaux-Arts et de la Li 
Journal des Connaissances 
Journal of the Franklin Institute 

Judge 

Jugend . . . . • 
Kalckreuth, L., Artist 
Kappstein, Karl, Artist . 
Kcenc, Cliarles, Artist . 
Kelheini, or Solenhofen, Stone 

Kepler, Max, Artist 



• 51 
■ 57 

• 57 

• 57 
45, 54,65,70. no 

■ 94-5, loi 

. 205 

. 82 

xii, 157, 242 

. . 283 

• • 78 

. . 178 

. 202 

38, 70 

. . 89 

57, 70 

81, 210 

. 102, 106 

. 106 

crature . 205 

. 217 

. 217 

213, 222 



9, 37. 



• 197 
. 198 

198, 242 

• 73 
98, 

246, 249 
222 

M 



INDEX 



Ketterlinus Lithographic Manufacturing 

Company 225 

Khnopff, Fernand, Artist .... 205 
Klinger, Max, Artist .... 173, 198 
Knecht, L., Printer . . . . 26, 53 

Koehler, S. R., Author 221 

Kollwitz, Frau, Artist 197 

Workwoman 207 

Koniglichen Acadcmie jHr Grapliisdic k'linsl 

und Buck Gewerbe, Leipzig . . 241 
Koniglich Baicrischer Gemiilde - Saal zti 

Miincheii und Schleifshcim . 25, 190 
Koninkliik Museum van 'sGravenliage op sleen 
gebragl, Hel {See the Dutch Gallery). 
Korn, Maker of Chalks, etc. . . . 253, 254 

Kraus, Press Builders 241 

Kroniek, De 206 

Lachnitt, A., Artist 169 

La Farge, John, Artist and Author . 58, 219 
Lami, Eugene, Artist . 58, 61, 65, 70, 102, 105 
Unifonnes des Armecs Franfaises . . 58 
Lancedelly, Josef, Artist . . -451 201 
Lane, R. J., Artist . 102, 105, no, in, 

117. 121, 134 
Portrait of Mrs. y^ameson . . .111 
Portfolio of Illustrations of Jolin Keinble, 

etc 105 

Sketches after Gainsborough . .117 

Lange, Helen, Artist 198 

Langlume, Printer 53 

Lassalle, Emile, Artist 82 

Lasteyrie, Comte C. P. de. Printer . 6, 

26,41, 42, 53, 61, 118, 217 

Visit to Munich 41 

Opens a Lithographic Press in Paris . 41 
His Shop becomes Fashionable Head- 
quarters 42 

Lauber, J., Artist 222 

Laurens, J., Artist 82 

Laurens, J. P., Artist 173 

Lauters, P., Artist 202 

Lauzet, A. M., Artist 169 

Lavigne, Marin, Artist 82 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, Artist . . .210 

Lawson, J. Kerr 147, 157 

It Pontc 147 



Leandre, Artist 
Lear, Edward, Artist 
Lebrasseur, R., Publisher 
Lecomte, Aubry-, Artist 
Lecomte, H., Artist 
Lefort, Paul, Author 
Legrand, Louis, Artist . 
Legros, Professor A., Artist . 
Lehmann and Duval, Printers 
Leighton, Lord, Artist . 
Leipzig Exhibitions 
Lejeune, General Baron, Printer 
The Cossack by 



. 181 

■ 122 

. . . 78 

54. 81 
42, 61 
. 210 
. 181 

i34> 137' 149- 165 
. 218 

• 134 
. xi, xii, xiii, 238 

41 
IS 



169, 



PAGE 

Lemcrcier, Printer . . 53, 165, 225, 241 

Lithographic Chalks manufactured by . 
Lemercier, R. 'J., Founder of the Firm of 

Lemercier, by Deveria 
Lemud, A. de. Artist 

Hi& Maitre Wulfranib 
Leonard, J., Artist 

After Rembrandt 
Lepcre, A., Artist . 
Le Roux, E., .Artist 
Leslie, C. R., Artist 
Lethaby, W. R., Artist . 
Lewis, J. F., Artist 

Tlie Alhambra . 

Sketches of Spain and Spanish 

Sketches of Constantinople 
Leys, Baron, Artist 
Lhermitte .... 
Liberie, La ... . 
Library of the Fine Arts, etc.. The 
Lidia, La .... 
Liebermann, Max, Artist 
Linnell, John, Artist 
Linnell, John, Jun., Artist 

Lithograph after Mulready's Soiin 



O, II 



Character 



Lithographer, The . 
Lithographic Artistique, Traitc di 
Lithographic Mensuelle, La 
Lithographies d'apris les Principaux Tableaux 
de Monseigneur le Prince d'Aren 
berg, etc. . 
Lithography : History of 

Patents .... 

Discovery of . 

Definition of . 

First Lithograph 

First Book illustrated by 

First Book on . 

Secret of . 

A Complete Course of . . xi, 25 

In Paris .... 

Absolute Beginning of . 

Grammar of . 

Technical Difference between Intaglio or 
Relief Engraving and 10, 14, 17, 253 

The Art of Surface Printing 

Absolutely Autographic . 

In France 

Commercial, in Germany 

First French Lithograph 

The Fashion 41, 

Notice sur la Lithographic ... 45 

Chromo 46 

Popularity in France of . . . -53 

La maniere noire 61 

Lithotint of Hullmandel . . 70, 114 

Lavis liihographique of Engelmann . 45 

French Papers illustrated by . . -70 



241 



SS 

70 

70 

17s 

175 

177 

81 

109 

133 
121 
121 
121 
121 
205 

173 
70 

loS 
213 
198 
117 
102, 107 



102, 107 
121 
166, 173 

73 



202 

5 
18 

5, 14 

14 

14 

7 

6 

25 

26, 97 

37 

14 
257. 305 



254 
17 
17 
37 
37 
37 
42.43 



1I4 



INDEX 



Lithograpliy — 

French Albums of Litliographs . 53, 65 
Portraits, The Triumph of French . 73 

Thackeray on Lithof^raphy in Paris . 77 
Decadence in France of . . 77-S, 82 

Ruined by Commerciahsni . . 77-8, 82 
Frencli Reproductive . . .78, 81-2 
Lithographs in tlie Salon . . 77, 82 
Lithographs in the New Salon . 174, 178 

Early English 89 

First used to illustrate an Englisli Book 94 

English Stone loi 

Difficulties of Early Lithographers . 102 
Held in Contempt in England . . 102 
French Lithographers' Work in England 105 
Sporting Prints .... 106 
Natural History Prints .... 106 

In Scotland 121 

Becomes Commercial in England . . 122 
In the Royal Academy .... 137 

Lithographie Gaufrcc 178 

Future of 181 

Spread in Germany .... 190 

Introduced into Belgium, 202 ; into 

Holland, 205 ; Spain 209 ; Italy . 213 
Lithographers in Switzerland . .214 

Commercial, in America . . .217 

Franklin Institute in Philadelphia offers 

Prizes 217 

In Daily Journalism .... 222 

Best Stone for 237, 246 

Paper for Printing Lithographs . . 266 
Lithographic Presses .... 270 
Lithograpliy, the Art of Making Drawings on 

Stone, by Bankes .... 94 
Lithography, Specimens of, Printed by Francis 

Moser 94 

Lohle, Printer 190 

Lomet, Col., Amateur . . . . 38, 45 

Lithograph of Jean Staininger . . 38 

Loo, Florimond van. Artist .... 205 

Lopez, J. A., Artist 210 

Louis of Bavaria, Prince .... 22 

Louis Philippe 193 

Lozano, Artist 210 

Lunois, A., Artist . 166, 167, 169, 173, 174, 181 
Hollandaise de Volendam . 166, 167, 173 

Lynch, J. H., Artist 117 

Macaire, Robert 66, 77 

Macbeth, R. W., Artist .... 134, 137 

Maclise, D., Artist 109 

Maclure and Macdonald, Printers . . 121 

Madou, J. B., Artist .... 202, 205 

Scenes de la Vie des Peinires, etc. . . 202 

Madrazo, Jose de, Artist . . 209, 210, 213 

Magazine of Art, The 134 

Mairet, F., Printer . . . . 45, 53 

Manet, Edouard, Artist . . 149, 165, 169, 287 

His Illustrations to The Raven . . 169 



Manet, Edouard — 

Portrait de Femme . 
Mannlich, C. von, Printer 
Marc-Gazca, Printer 
Marchant, W., Dealer . 
Maris, James, Artist 

Dutch Church . 
Markendorf, Artist . 
Marks, Montague . 
Marlet, J. H., Artist 
Marty, Andre, Publisher 
Matisse, Artist 
Maurou, Paul, Artist 

The Vision 
Maximilian, Joseph 
Maximilian, Missal of . 
McCarter, Artist . 
McCuUoch, George, Artist . 
McLean, Publisher 

Monthly Sheet of Caricatures 
Mendoza, Artist 
Menzel, Adolf von, .\rtist 



. 287 

. 189 

. . . 6s 

• 157 
. 205 
. 227 
. 190 

222 

. 61 

153, 169, 174, 178 

• • 17; 
166, 169, 263 

• 263 

22, 26 
. 189 

• 225 

• 121, 133 
log, 114, 118 

. 118 

• 213 
ix, 58, 137, 

190, 193, 194, 195, 197, 225 

The Garden 195 

Uniforms of the Army of Frederick the 

Great 194 

His work for the Dresden Gallery . . 190 
Lithographs for Kiinsllers Erdenwallen . 193 
Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Brandenbur 

gisch Preussischen Geschichte . . 194 
Illustrations for History of Frederick the 

Great 194 

Sketches on Stone 194 

Versuche aiif Slein mil Pinsel und Scha 

beisen 



Christ in the Temple . 
Merimee 

Mesdag, H. W., Artist . 
Mielatz, C. F. W., Artist 
Millais, Artist 
Millet, J. F., Artist . 

The Sower 
Miroir, Le . . . 
Mirror, The . 
Mitterer, Printer . 
Mode, La . . . 

Modern Painters 
Molard, Professor . 
MoUien, Countess, Amateur 
Monnier, Henri, Artist . 

Joseph Prudlwmme . 

Publications 
Montalti, A., Artist 
Montpensier, Due de. Amateur 
Montrose, Duchess of. Amateur 
Monvcl, Boutet de. 
Moran, Thomas, Artist . 
Morgan, Mat., Artist 
Morin, E., Artist . 



78, 



194 

IX, 194 

46 

206 

225 

129 

I, 187, 214 



187 
70 
118 
22, loi, 190, 193 

70 

22 I 

38 
41 

66, 105, 109 

66 

66 

14 

45.93 

93 

178 

222 

221 

131 



42: 



■.) 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Morlot and Lan, Publishers .... 57 
Moser, F., Printer .... 94, 97, loi 

Motte, C, Printer . 53, 61, 66, 69, 70, 77, 81, 209 



SI, 109, 114 
Nighl 

. 81 
. 62 
118 
118 



114, 



Mouilleron, A., Artist 

Reproduction of Rembrandt's 
U'aicli .... 
Mo3'on, Publisher .... 
Miiller, William, Artist . 

Age of Francis I 
Mulready, W. {See J. Linnell, Jun.). 
Music Historiqnc, Mulhouse .... 41 
NacJilrag sii Albrcchl Diirers Chrisllicit 
Mythologisclien Haudzeichnunilcn 
(with Cranach's drawings) . .189 
Nanteuil, Celestin, Artist . . .57, 70, 81 
Rue de la Vieille Lanteriie, bj' . . 70 



Napoleon I . . . . 22, 41 


6 


1,62,65 


Napoleonic Legend, The . 61, 62, 65 


74, 106 


Nash, J., Artist . . . 114,117, 


118, 214 


Baronial Halls of England 


■ "7 


Historic Mansions . 






■ 117 


WUkie's, Oriental Sketches 






. 118 


Wilkie's Spanish Slielchcs 






. 118 


Ncolith, The 






• 157 


Nethercliff, J., Printer . 






. lOI 


Neue Lithographien 






. 201 


Newsam, Albert, Artist . 






. 218 


New York Daily Graphic, The 






. 222 


Nicholson, W., Artist . 






. lOI 


Niedermayer, Printer . 






• 37 


Nodier, Charles, Author 






■ 54 


Noel, Leon, Artist . 






. 81 


North, Lady Georgiana, Amateur . 






• 94 


Notice sur la Lithographic, on I' Art c 


•Imp 


tincr 


sur Pierre .... 






• 45 


Odevaere, J. D., Artist . 






. 202 


Pastes Belgiqiies, etc. 






. 202 


Ojetti, Author 






■ 213 


Orleans, Due d' (See Louis Philipp 


e). 






Orlik, Artist .... 






. 202 


Orloffski, Artist 






. 217 


Otis, Bass, Artist .... 






. 217 


Otis, Benj., Artist . 






. 217 


Pageant, The . 






138, 149 


Paget, H. M., Artist 






• 133 


Pan .... 197, I 


98, 2. 


• 8, 


241, 242 


Papillon, historian and engraver 






5 


Paroy, Artist .... 






• 38 


Parsons, Alfred, Artist . 






• 153 


Parsons, Charles, Artist . 






. 222 


Parthenon, Tlie 






• "7 


Peale, Rembrandt, Artist 






. 218 


Peintres Liihographcs, Lcs 






169, 173 


Album dcs 






'• 173 


Pendleton Brothers, Printers 






. 218 


Pendleton, Kearney & Childs, Printers 




. 218 


Pennell, Joseph, Artist . . 133, 154, 


157, 214 


Portrait of .... Fr 


ontispiece 


Gatun Lock 


. 




■ 27s 



PAGE 

Pennell, Mrs xi 

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts . 217, 218 

Perea, D., Artist 213 

Perregaux, Vernet draws portrait of Mme. . 42 
Pliilipon, Charles, Editor and .\rtist . 66, 73 

Piccadilly 133 

Picot, F. E., Artist 54 

PidoU, Van, Artist 201 

Pigal, E. J., Artist 66 

Piloty, F., Artist .... 37, 190. 194 
Hoar //»)!/, after Snydcrs ... 19 

Piloty and Lohle 190 

Work for Munich Gallery . . . 190 
Directs the Lcuchtenberg Gallery . . 190 

Pissaro, Artist 178 

Pleyel, Publisher 37 

Poitelin, A., Artist 178 

Polyautography, Name for Lithography 89,95 

Name given up ..... 95 

Ofiice of 93 

Specimens of, 1803 . . . . 89, 90 

Specimens of, 1806 90 

Polyautographic Collection in the British 

Museum Print Room ... 90 
Polyautographic Printer, The First . . 90 
Polj-autographic Society, The ... 90 
Porter, Sir R. K., Amateur ... 90, 94 
Prado Gallery, The . . . . 81,109,210 
Prague, Senefelder's Birthplace ... 6 
Prang, Louis, Printer . . 217,221,223,225 

Chromos 221 

6 
xii 



Printing Offices, Paris . 
Printing Trades Exhibition 
Prout, Samuel, Artist 



57. 95. 102. 105. 

no, 113, 114, 214 

• 95 
102 
102 

102, no 
. no 
. no 

• 113 
. 66 

157, 255 

• 255 



The Pump .... 

The Rhine .... 

Foreign Views .... 

Drawing Books . 

France, Switzerland, and Italy 

Sketches in Flanders and Germany 

Microcosm .... 
Prudhomme, Joseph 
Pryse, G. Spencer .... 

Football Match .... 

Puck 213 

Punch, The First Idea for 
Pursell, E., Artist, Early Frauds 
Ouaglio, Dominic, Artist 
Quaglio, Laurence, Artist 
Raffet, A., Artist . 39, 43, 6r, 62, 70, 73, 82, 

109, 214 

His .\lbums 

Siege de la CitadcUc d'A nvers 

Rctrait de Constantine 

Expedition de Rome . 

Illustrations to Scott 

Voyages dans la Russie Mcridionalc, etc. 

Drawings on Paper 



n8 
102 
190 
igo 

302 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 



116 



INDEX 









PAGE 


Raffet, A., Le Riveil 




. 


39 


La Revue Nocturne . 






62 


lis grognaieni, etc. 






43 


Caricatures 






62 


Raffaelli, J. F., Artist . 






178 


Ranger, H. W., Artist . 






222 


Rapp, Heinrich, Author of Tlu 


Sec 


■ct of 




Lilliography 






25 


Raucourt, Col., Printer . 


25. 


45. S3. 


237 


Recamier, Mme. . 






22 


Redman, D., Printer 


93- 


94. 97 


lOI 


Radon, Odilon, Artist . 




174. 


177 


Regamey, Felix, Artist . 






213 


Regnault, J. B., Artist . 






41 


Reid, Sir George, Artist 






121 


Renouard, P., Artist 




38, 


178 


Revillon, Madame, Printer . 






37 


Revue des Pei litres . 






81 


Ribot, Artist .... 






165 


Richmond, W. D., Author 




257. 305 


Richter, H., Artist . 






106 


Ricketts, C, Artist 




134 


150 


Rico, Artist .... 






213 


Ricordi, Printer and Publisher 






214 


Ricourt, Editor of L'A rtisle and Lc 


I Silh 


ouette 






54. 


70. 74. 


134 


Riviere, Henri, Artist 






178 


Roberts, David, Artist . 




114, 


118 


Holy Land 






118 


His Opinion of Haghe . 






118 


Picturesque Sketches in Spain 






118 


Destruction of Jerusalem . 






118 


Robida, A., Artist . 






181 


Vieille France . 






i8r 


Rodwell and Martin, Publishers 






65 


Roedel, Auguste, Artist . 






177 


Rops, Felicien, Artist . . i 


70, 201, 205, 


291 


Portrait of Adele Dutte . 






291 


Roqueplan, C, Artist 




70. 


109 


Rose-Croix, The 




. 


177 


Rosenthal, G., Artist . 




no, 


221 


Rosenthal, Max, Artist . 


. 


218, 


225 


Rossetti, Dante G., Artist . 




, 


129 


Rothenstein, Will, Artist 




13s, 


150 


Oxford Characters . 






150 


English Portraits 






150 


Portraits of Shannon and RicI; 


etts 


135. 


150 


Rowney, Printer . 






lOI 


Royal Academy of Arts 




130, 


137 


Royal Library, Munich . 






189 


Royal Printing Establishment, M 


idrid 




210 


Ruskin, John, Author . no, i 


14, 121, 129, 


221 


Russian Lithographers . 




, 


202 


Rusticus (Sec M. A. J. Bauer). 








Sabatier, L., Artist . 




57. 


114 


Sachse & Co., Printers . 






194 


Sagot, Emile, Artist 




, 


57 


Saint-Evre, G. . . . 






70 


St. Stephen's Review 




. 


213 



PAGn 

Salon, The . . .81, 82, 170, 173, 177, 178 

The New .... 166, 174, 177 

Salon, Album dii 81 

Salon de 1839, Lc 81 

Salon de I'Eslampc Originate .... 205 
Sandys, Frederick, Artist . . . 119,129 

The Nightmare 119 

Sargent, J. S., Artist . . . 137, 139, 153 

A Study 139 

Sarony, Napoleon, Artist . . . .221 
Saturday Review ...... 154 

Savoy, The 149 

Scharf, G., Artist .... 97,101,106 
SchlichtegroU, F. von. Professor . . 6, 25, 8g 
Schmidt, Simon, Professor . 
Scholtz, M., Inventor of Algraphie 

Schubert, Artist 

Schussele, C, Artist . . . .21 

Schwebach, E., Artist .... 

Scotland Delineated .... 

Secret of Lithography, The 

Senefelder, Aloys, Inventor of Lithography, 

xi, 5, 6, 10, II, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 

25, 26, 45, 46, 65, 70, 89, 94, 97, 98, 

loi, 102, no, 121, 129, 141, 146, 154, 

173, 177, 178, i8g, 190, 193, 194, 202, 

206, 217, 223, 234, 237, 238, 246, 250, 

253,258, 261, 270, 273, 281, 285,286, 

289, 290, 293, 294, 298, 301, 302, 305 

His Plays 6 

His Discovery . . . . 10, 14 

His English Patent ... 18, 89 

His French Patent 18 

His Austrian Patent .... 21 

Titlc-Page of Complete Course . . 11,25,26 

Senefelder, Clement, Printer . . 26, 189 

Senefelder, George, Printer ... 17, 22 

Senefelder, Peter 6 

Senefelder, Theobald, Printer . 17, 22, 26, 189 



10, 13, 25 

. 206 

• 205 

218, 22^ 



114 
25 



Senefelder Club, The . . 157, 158, 298, 306 
Series of Antient Allegorical, Historical, and 

Legendary Paintings, etc. ... go 
Serres, Marcel de, Author . . . 21, 22 
'Sgravesande, Storm Van, Artist . 205, 206, 223 

Dutch Fishing Boats . . . .223 

Shannon, C. H., Artist . 131, 134, 137, 149, 153, 157 

The Bathers 131 

Lithographs for the Dial, 149 ; for 
the Pageant, 149; for L'Estampe 
Originate 149 

Portfolios 149 

Short, Frank, Artist i33 

Sickert, Walter, Critic and Artist . . 154 

Signac, Artist i77. 178 

Silhouette, La 7°. 73 

Simeon, Comte, Amateur .... 45 
Simpson, William, Artist . 102,114,121, 

122, 129 

Sketches at the Seat of War in the East 121 



;i7 



INDEX 



. 121 

8i, 169 
22 1 
222 

94 
121 
221 

166 



Simpson, William, Artist — 

India .... 
Sirouy, Achille, Artist . 
Smillie, J. D., Artist 
Smitli, F. Hopkinson, Artist . 
Smith, ]. T., Autlior 
Sm3'tlie, Colve .... 
Smith field I nsiittile. 
Snyders {See Piloty). 
Societe des Artistes Lithograplies 
Societe d'Encouragement pour I'lndustrie 

Nationale . . 38, 41, 45, 46, 53 

Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse ... 46 
Society of Arts, Tlie . xii, 25, 89, 94, 97, 

98, 99, Id 

Offers a Premium .... 

Transactions of the .... 
Society of Iconophiles .... 
Solenhofen Stone (See Kelheim Stone). 
Soulange-Teissier, L. E., Artist 
South Kensington Museum . 
Specimens of Litliograpliy printed by Moser 
Specimens of Potyautography by Andre . 

by Vollweiler . 
Spruyt, C, Artist . 
" Spy," Artist .... 
Stanfield, Clarlison, Artist 
Steiner, Professor . 
Stcinhausen, W., Artist . 
Steinlen, T., Artist . 

En Giive .... 
Sterner, A. E., Artist 
Stevens, Alfred, Artist . 
Stone Paper .... 
Stones of Venice, by Ruskin, Lithographs 

for . 
Stothard, T., Artist . 

Specimen of Potyautography 
Strang, William, Artist . 

Artist's Portrait 
Straub, C, Artist . 
Stri.xner, N., Artist . . .7 

Page of Dilrcr Missal 

Directs the Boisseree Gallery 
Stroehling, P. E., Artist. 
Strohofer, Printer . 
Strowbridge Lithographic Company, Printers 

221 222 22 ^ 

Studio, Tlie .... 
Sudre, J. P., Artist . 
Sullivan, E. J. 

Zephyrus and Flora. 
Tayler, Frederick, Artist 
Taylor, Baron, Artist and Author 

S7, 78; I 
Employs English Artists 
Ten Gate, H., Artist 
Terry, Artist .... 
Thackeray, W. M., Author 



225 

82 
xiii, 90 

94 

18,89 

90 

202 

137 
114 

13 

197, 201 

174, 179, 181 

• 179 

222 22^ 
, 129 

. . 65 



. no 

87, 90 

. . 87 

■ 143. 149 
• 143 

. 190 

21, 37. 190. 194 

7 
. 190 

. 90 

25. 94 



• 134 
. 81 

15s. 157 

• iSS 
. 114 



S3. 54. 
05. 113. 128, 134 

• 57. 134 
• 205 
. 214 

• 77. 109 



Thienemann, Karl, Publisher 
Thoma, Hans, Artist 
Thomson, George, Artist 
Thornton, or Thornley, Artist 
Tito, E., Artist 
Toroop, Jan van, Artist . 
Toulouse-Lautrec, H. de, Artist 



PAGE 

■ 25 

197, 201 

137. 153 
. 178 
. 214 
. 205 

171. 
174, 181 

Cover for L'Estampe Originate . . 171 

Traite de Lithographic Artistique . . . 166 
Transfer Paper . 13, 265, 266, 285, 286, 

289, 290 

First Recorded Use of . . . .13 
Transferring Drawings, Prize for . . . loi 
Travies, G. T., Artist . . . . 26, 66 
Treuttel and Wiirtz, Publishers . . .216 
Troyon .... ... 82 

Tudot, E., Printer 70 

Turner, J. M. W., Artist . 94, loi, 102, 121 

Burning Blue Lights at Sea, Lithographed 

by Carrick 121 

Twenty-four Views of Italy . . . 94, loi 
Uniforms of the Army of Frederick the 

Great .... 
LInceto, Artist .... 
Unger, H., Artist .... 

Study Head .... 
Uniformcs des Armces Fran(aiscs . 78 



41,42, 



26 



Uylenspiegel . 
Vallego, Artist 
Valloton, F., Artist 
Vanderhof, C. A., Artist 
Vanier, Leon, Publisher 
Vanity Fair 

Varley, Cornelius, Artist 
Veber, Jean, Artist 
Verboekhoven, E., Artist 
Vernet, Carl, Artist 

Oris de Paris .... 
Vernet, Horace, Artist . 

Uniformes des Armees Franfaises 
Vernier, Charles, Artist . 
Vernier, Emile, Artist . 
Veth, J. v.. Artist .... 

Portrait of Menzct . 
Victoria, Her Majesty Queen, Amateu 
Vie de yesus-Chrisi . 
Vie de la Salute Vierge . 
Vierge, D., Artist . 
Vigneron, P. R., Artist . 
Villain, Printer 
Villedreil, Comte de. Editor . 
Villeneuve, J. L. F., Artist 
Vinter, J. A., Artist 

Lithographer to the Queen 
VioUet-le-Duc, Architect 
Vireloque, Tliomas . 
Vollvifeiler, G. J., Publisher , 

18 



• 58 
. 210 

198, 203 

• 203 
90. 
"4. 



121 
. 170 

• 213 

• 174 
222, 225 

. i6q 

• 137 
90,94 

• 177 
. 202 

58, 65, 102 

• 65 
54. 58. 63 

• 58 
. 81 
. 81 

206, 219 
. 219 

• 94 
. 8i 
. 81 
■ 213 
61,65 

• 53 

• 73 

• 57 

• 117 

• 177 

• 57 
71, 74, 82 

90. 93. 97 



INDEX 



57. 



Vorziigliclistcn Gemalde der Konigliclicn 

Galerie in Dresden .... 190 

Artists who worked for the Dresden 

Gallery 190 

Voyages Pittoresques el Romaniiqucs dans I'A n- 
cienne France . 54, 55, 56, 57, 105, 

113, 118, 134 

Price and Publicntioii of 

Illustrated by English Artists 
Vues Pittoresques en Ecosse 
Wagner and Debies, Printers 
Wagner, Carl . . . . xi, xn 
Walker, G., Amateur 
Walter, H., Artist .... 
Waltner, Artist .... 
Walton, W. L., Printer . 
Ward, James, Artist 
Ward, Marcus, Printer and Publisher . . 137 
Warwick, Earl of. Amateur .... 90 

Washerwoman, The 9 

Watson, Charles J., Artist .... 133 

Watts, G. F., Artist 137 

Way, Thomas, Printer . . . . 130, 150 
Way, T. R., Artist . . 130, 133, 134, 141, 

142. 145. 146, 153. 157.302 
Lecture at Art Workers' Guild . 133, 134 
Catalogue of Whistler's Lithographs 

130. 133. 141. 146, 153 
Portfolio of Ten Sketches . . . .150 
Reliques of Old London .... 150 

Wehrschmidt, D. A 157, 279 

Old Hall 279 



54 
134 

• 113 
242 

10, 17. 23 

• 90 
loi, 106 

. 190 

. 106 

102, 106 



PAGE 

Weir, J. Alden, Artist 222 

West, Sir Benjamin, Artist .... 90 

Westall, R., Artist 102, 103 

Wliirkvind, The 133 

Whistler, ]. McNeill, Artist . 130, 131, 133, 

'34. 137. 138, 141. 142. 14s. 146, 

150, IS3, 298, 302 
Portrait af y. PcuncU . . Frontispiece 



St. Giles', Solio .... 

The Thames .... 

Lithographs for Piccadilly 

Do. for The Whirlwind 

Do. for The Albemarle 

Do. for The Studio 

Lithograph for Stephane Mallarme's 
Vers et Proses 

Lithograph for The Pageant . 

Notes 

Gentle Art of Making Enemies . 

Colour Prints 

Wilkie, Sir David, Artist . . . 109, 201 

Oriental Sketches 118 

Spanish Sketches 118 

Reading the Will 190 

Willettc, A., Artist . . . . 174, 177, 307 

Fortune 307 

Winterhalter, F., Artist 73 

Woelftie, J., Artist 190 

Wolf, Joseph, Artist .... 106, 193 

Worth, T., Artist 222 

Zeller, Printer 189 



■ 123 

127, 141 

• 133 

• 133 

• 133 

• 134 



141 
138 
131 
131 
138 



319 



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